Table of Contents

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1.  Introductory Topics    11
Definitions of Technical Terms    11
What is a Crime?    12
Note:  Levels of Fines    13
The Nature of Criminal Procedure    14
Criminal Procedure in its Socio-Political Context    14
Crime control versus due process    15
Classification according to treatment of victims’ rights    17
The Declaration of Rights in the Constitution    18
Fair trial    23
Equal protection of law    24
Public trial    25
Presence of accused    26
Representation of accused    27
Presumption of innocence    28
Burden of proof:  proof beyond reasonable doubt    29
The right of [or to] silence:  privilege against self-incrimination    31
Reasonableness    34
Rights and duties:  crime control and due process    35
Adversarial and inquisitorial systems of criminal procedure    36
Criminal procedure as a system    37
Remedies    38
2.  Jurisdiction of the Courts    40
Magistrates courts    40
Territorial jurisdiction    40
Crimes that may be tried in a magistrates court    41
Magistrates’ jurisdiction as to punishment    41
The High Court    44
Original jurisdiction    44
Review jurisdiction    44
Appellate jurisdiction    45
The Supreme Court    45
The Constitutional Court    45
3.  The Police and Their Powers    46
Who are the Police?    46
Police officers/peace officers    46
Interrogation by the Police    46
Judges’ Rules    48
Taking of bodily samples from persons    48
4.  Securing the attendance of the accused at his trial    50
1.  Arrest and Remand    50
Arrest without a warrant    51
Arrest with warrant    55
Use of force in effecting an arrest    56
Effect of unlawful arrest    59
Taking of fingerprints, etc.    59
Records to be kept of arrested persons    59
Rights of suspect and his practitioner after arrest    60
Remand    61
2.  Summons    65
Issue of summons    65
Contents of summons    65
Service of summons    65
Proof of service of summons if accused fails to appear in court    66
3.  Written Notice to Appear    66
4.  Warning to Appear    67
5.  Extradition    67
6.  Merits of the different methods of securing attendance of accused    67
Arrest and Remand    67
Summons    68
Written notice to appear    69
Warning to appear    69
5.  Bail Pending Trial    70
What is Bail?    70
Who May Grant Bail    71
Application for Bail    71
Principles Governing the Grant of Bail    73
Right to bail    73
Compelling reasons justifying detention    73
Section 117 of the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act    74
Onus of proof    75
Methods of Granting Bail    76
Deposit of money or property    76
Recognizances    76
Bail Conditions    77
Amount of Bail    77
Amendment or Withdrawal of Bail    77
Breach of Conditions of Bail    77
Appeal against Grant or Refusal of Bail    78
Appeal by accused against decision of magistrate    78
Appeal by accused against decision of judge    79
Appeal by Prosecutor-General against bail decisions    79
Bail Granted by Police    80
6.  Search and Seizure    82
Search of a Person on Arrest    82
Search With and Without Warrant    82
Search and seizure of articles with warrant    82
Search without warrant    85
Effect of Unlawful Search    86
Subsequent Disposal of Seized Articles    87
7.  Judicial Officers    90
Judicial officer’s conduct    90
Questioning of witnesses    90
Calling of evidence    91
Assistance to undefended accused persons    91
Protecting witnesses    92
Recusal of judicial officer    92
Incapacity of judge or magistrate    94
8.  Prosecutors    95
Public prosecutions (“prosecutions at the public instance”)    95
The National Prosecuting Authority and the Prosecutor-General    95
Other law officers    96
Independence of prosecutors    96
Duties of prosecutors    97
The decision to prosecute    98
Private prosecutions    100
Who may prosecute    100
Procedure for instituting private prosecution    100
9.  Prosecution of Companies and Associations    103
Criminal liability of corporate bodies and associations    103
Charging corporate bodies and associations    104
Evidence and presumptions    104
Proof of a body’s corporate nature    104
Presumptions    104
10.  Mentally Disordered Accused Persons    106
Introduction    106
Police powers on arrest of mentally disordered or intellectually handicapped person    106
Mental illness disclosed before trial    107
Mental illness disclosed during trial    108
1.  Mental disorder rendering accused unfit to stand trial    108
2.  Mental disorder not rendering accused unfit to stand trial    109
Recovery of person found unfit to plead or stand trial    109
Mental illness becoming apparent after conviction    109
Accused person who was mentally disordered when the crime was committed    110
Requirements for special verdict    111
Evidence required for special verdict    111
What constitutes mental disorder or intellectual handicap    112
Deaf mutes    112
11.  Charges and Indictments    114
Nature of charges    114
Choice of crime to charge    114
Essentials of charge    115
Contents of charge    115
1.  Particulars of the accused    115
2.  Time and place of crime    116
3.  Essentials of the crime    116
Particular crimes    117
Crimes requiring particular intent    117
Theft    117
Section 146(2)    117
Joinder of counts    118
Alternative charges    119
Further particulars    119
Defects in charges    119
Failure to allege anything which it is unnecessary to prove.    119
Incorrect designation of a person mentioned in the charge    120
Omission to state the time of the crime    120
Wrong date specified in the charge, or no time mentioned    120
Want of or imperfection in the addition of an accused or other person    120
Failure to mention the value or price of anything, or the amount of damage etc.    120
Defect in charge cured by evidence    121
Amendment of charge    121
When amendment is not allowed    121
Amendment on appeal    121
Splitting of charges    122
What is splitting of charges?    122
Test for splitting of charges    123
Withdrawal of charges    124
Withdrawal before plea    124
Withdrawal after plea    124
12.  Joinder and Separation of Trials    125
Joinder of accused    125
Separation of trials    125
13.  Extra-Curial Statements    128
What is an extra-curial statement?    128
Types of extra-curial statements    128
Admissibility of extra-curial statements    128
General rule    128
Warning and caution    129
Indications    130
Failure to mention relevant facts    131
Production of extra-curial statements    131
Tendering of unconfirmed extra-curial statements    131
Production in evidence of confirmed extra-curial statements    132
Deletion of prejudicial matter from extra-curial statements    134
Objections to our law vis-à-vis extra-curial statements    135
Conviction of accused person on proof of confession    136
14.  Witnesses    137
Securing the presence of witnesses    137
Warning    137
Subpoena    137
Exclusion of witnesses from courtroom    138
Hostile witnesses    138
Discrediting or impeaching witnesses    138
Protection of vulnerable witnesses    139
Measures that can be taken to protect vulnerable witnesses    139
15.  Preliminaries to the Trial    141
Date of trial    141
High Court    141
Magistrates court    141
Postponement or adjournment of trial    141
Bringing the accused to trial in the High Court    141
16.  Outline of Trial Procedure from Plea to Sentence    144
Introduction    144
Explanation of Accused Person’s Rights    144
Arraignment    144
Plea of guilty    144
Plea of not guilty    144
Outline of State and Defence Cases    145
High Court    145
Magistrates court    145
The State Case    145
Discharge at End of State Case    145
Defence Case    146
Verdict    146
Sentence    146
17.  Pleas    147
Arraignment    147
Objections to charge    147
Exceptions and motions to quash    147
Notice to be given before objecting to charge, and for certain pleas    148
Particular pleas    148
Not guilty    148
Guilty    148
Autrefois Acquit or Autrefois Convict    153
Absence of jurisdiction    155
Presidential pardon    155
Plea that accused was given immunity after giving evidence as accomplice    155
Permanent stay of prosecution    156
Absence of title by the prosecutor    156
Lis pendens    156
[Truth of defamatory matter]    156
Combination of pleas    156
Notice of pleas    156
Alteration of plea    157
Accused entitled to verdict after plea    157
18.  Outline of State and defence cases    159
High Court    159
Magistrates court    159
19.  Prosecution case    161
Evidence for the prosecution    161
Cross-examination and re-examination of State witnesses    162
Close of State case    162
Discharge of accused at close of State case    162
When application for discharge may be made    163
When discharge should be ordered    163
20.  Defence case    166
Informing the accused of his rights    166
Defence evidence    166
Questioning of accused    167
21.  Procedure After Close of Evidence    168
Addresses by the parties    168
Record of trial    168
Stopping of trial before verdict    168
22.  Verdict    170
Verdicts and judgments    170
When judgment should be given    170
Reasons for judgment    170
Possible verdicts    171
Acquittal    171
Conviction    171
Alternative counts    171
Permissible [competent] verdicts    171
23.  Sentence    173
Pre-sentence investigation    173
Proof of previous convictions    173
Evidence on sentence    174
Order in which evidence is presented or addresses are made    175
Onus of proof    176
Passing of sentence    176
Sentence to be passed in open court    176
By whom sentence may be passed    177
Correction of sentence    177
Sentencing for untried crimes    178
Adjournment of case where sentence exceeding magistrate’s jurisdiction is justified    178
Penal provisions    179
Forms of sentence    179
General    179
Death sentence    180
Imprisonment    180
Fine    183
Community service    184
Corporal punishment    187
Putting the offender under recognizances (binding a person over to keep the peace)    187
Caution and discharge    188
Mandatory minimum sentences    188
Special circumstances or reasons    188
Multiple counts    189
Cumulative or consecutive sentences    189
Sentencing guidelines    190
Suspension or postponement of sentence    191
General considerations as to suspension or postponement    191
Conditions of suspension or postponement    192
Length of suspended sentence and period of suspension    193
Bringing suspended sentence into effect    193
Reasons for Sentence    195
Factors affecting sentence    195
General approach to sentence    195
Specific factors    197
Costs    201
Compensation for victims    201
Forfeiture of items    202
24.  Scrutiny and Review    204
Scrutiny by regional magistrate    204
Automatic review by High Court    204
Purpose of review    205
Powers of judge on review    205
Real and substantial justice    206
Non-automatic Review    207
Incomplete proceedings    208
Bail pending review    208
25.  Appeals    209
Distinction Between Appeal and Review    209
Appeal Courts    210
Appeals by Accused    210
From High Court    210
From magistrates courts    211
From other courts    211
Interlocutory rulings    211
Bail pending appeal    212
Application for bail pending appeal    212
Principles governing bail pending appeal    212
Appeals by Prosecutor-General    213
Appeal on point of law or against acquittal or against discharge at end of State case    213
Appeal against sentence    214
Appeal against interlocutory rulings    214
Application for Leave to Appeal    214
Notice of Appeal    215
Time-limits for noting appeals    215
Appeals from magistrates courts    215
Appeals from High Court    215
Extension of time    216
Grounds of appeal    216
Magistrate’s reasons    216
Procedure where judgment not available    217
Payment for record    217
Appeals in person    217
Representation of appellant and renunciation of agency    217
Set-down    218
Appeals by Prosecutor-General    218
Appeals by convicted persons    218
Heads of argument    218
Court’s powers on appeal    218
Concession by Prosecutor-General    218
Hearing of evidence    219
Quashing of conviction    219
Alteration of conviction    219
Alteration of sentence    220
Statement of appropriate sentence    220
Statement of appropriate verdict or quashing of acquittal    220
Restitution, compensation, etc.    220
Remittal for trial de novo    221
Dismissal of appeal    221
Execution of Sentence Pending Appeal    221