divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW) http://zimlii.org/ en Bowes (nee Scionning) v Bowes (17 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 19 (19 January 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/19-0 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Bowes (nee Scionning) v Bowes (17 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 19 (19 January 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2139" hreflang="x-default">custody of child</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2195" hreflang="x-default">divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2269" hreflang="x-default">Urgent Application</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 05/06/2022 - 09:47</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/19/2022-zwhhc-19_0.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=33151">2022-zwhhc-19.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/19/2022-zwhhc-19_0.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=358831">2022-zwhhc-19.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right">HH 17-22</p> <p class="text-align-right">HC6592/21</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">WENDY KATHRYN BOWES (nee SCHIONNING)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CLYDE MATHHEW BOWES</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE<br /> MUREMBA J<br /> HARARE, 2 December 2021 and 19 January 2022</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Urgent Chamber Application </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">OT Sanyika,</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TL Mapuranga</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> with <i>A Rubaya &amp; T Makamure</i>, for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            MUREMBA J:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[1]        The two parties are on separation pending divorce.  They have two children together both girls aged eleven and eight years old. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[2]        They married in New Zealand, were resident in South Africa for the greater part of their marriage and decided to relocate to Zimbabwe in August 2019.  However, the respondent who is employed in South Africa remained behind when the applicant and the children moved to Zimbabwe.  The plan was he would follow to Zimbabwe later on.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[3]        Unfortunately by the time the parties decided to relocate to Zimbabwe, their marriage was already on the rocks.  They continued to grow apart after the applicant and the children had moved to Zimbabwe. The applicant found affection from someone else and the parties eventually separated. The applicant and the children moved out of the respondent’s mother’s house in Borrowdale where they were staying. The applicant filed for divorce. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[4]        Initially the children were enrolled at Chisipite Junior School, but were withdrawn after the respondent had withdrawn financial support according to the applicant.  It is a fact that on 28 September 2020 the respondent wrote to Chisipite Junior School asking to be removed as the responsible parent for paying school bills.  He said that with effect from that date he was no longer assuming any liability to pay any school fees for the children.  He further indicated that the applicant had volunteered to be the sole responsible person to pay the fees.  He asked all future bills to be sent to the applicant and the fees records to reflect the applicant.  He however, asked to remain on the mailing list for newsletters and progress reports.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[5]        The applicant continued the children at the school with the aid of family and friends.  However, she later withdrew them for a term because of the financial burden.  The period of withdrawal coincided with the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. She then home schooled them.  She is a teacher by profession.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[6]        The applicant however, believes that the children can only get the best learning experience from a formal school set up.  She then sought a bursary for them for January 2022 and had them enrolled at Springvale House, Marondera.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[7]        The respondent however, went on to write an email to Springvale House saying that he had not been consulted as the guardian and that he did not want his girls in boarding school.  They had been offered places as weekly boarders.  As a result, the school withdrew its offer.  The applicant had already paid the deposit needed by the school through her family.  The respondent said he wanted to home school the children.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[8]        In her present application the applicant wanted an interim order interdicting the respondent from interfering with her custodial rights.  She also wanted to be awarded sole custody of the children.  On the return date, she was going to seek the same reliefs.  This made the reliefs which were being sought defective.  I brought this to the attention of the applicant on the date of the first hearing. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[9]        At that first hearing I postponed the matter to enable the parties to engage each other with a view of settling the matter amicably.  Unfortunately they failed to reach a settlement.  However, they managed to come up with a draft order which had three options.  They asked to argue the matter and for the court to then give an order from the three options that they came up with. The parties also included the respondent’s rights of access to go with each option. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[10]      The three options are that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a)        The children shall be educated through home schooling (This is what the respondent wants) ; or</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            (b)        The children shall be educated at Springvale Junior School (This is what the                                   applicant wants. It is a boarding school.) ; or</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c )       The children shall be educated at Chisipite Junior School (This is what the respondent wants in the event that the option of home schooling does not find favour with the court. It is a day school).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[11]      At the hearing, the parties through their legal practitioners asked to give <i>viva voce</i> evidence on their options.  I allowed the request in light of rule 60 (8) of the High Court Rules, 2021 which provides that: - </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(8) A judge to whom papers are submitted in terms of subrules</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(6) or (7) may—</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(a)  require the applicant or the deponent of any affidavit</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      or any other person who may, in his or her opinion, be</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      able to assist in the resolution of the matter to appear</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">                   before him or her in chambers or in court as may to</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      him or her seem convenient and provide, on oath or</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      otherwise as the judge may consider necessary, such</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      further information as the judge may require;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[12]      The applicant despite being a qualified teacher wants the children to be educated at Springvale House in Marondera which is a boarding school because of the following reasons.  The school is one of the best schools in Zimbabwe.  It offers a good package which includes sports and academics.  It offers boarding facilities from grade one to grade seven.  From there the children go to Peterhouse Girls High School.  The school is situated in a game reserve and the children are bush children.  They love nature and outdoor life.  Generally, formal schooling is better than home schooling.  At a formal school there are trained teachers and the learning is structured.  The children get time to learn, do sports and rest.  The applicant would want the respondent to contribute towards the children’s fees as a co-parent.  She got a 50% bursary. So, the other 50% should come from the parents.  This 50% amounts to US$3800.00 per term for the two children.  Although the applicant is not allowed to work because of the nature of her visa, she says if the respondent refuses to pay for the children’s fees she will pay for them with the help of her family and friends.  The applicant said that the children will be away at school for four days a week.  They leave on Monday morning and return on Friday afternoon.  The bursary the applicant got extends to Peterhouse Girls High School.  It will only be withdrawn if the children fail or misbehave.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[13]      The respondent objects to the children being sent to boarding school because of the following reasons.  He cannot afford it because he is leaving employment soon, having tendered a notice of resignation.  He has no assets that the applicant says he has.  He believes home schooling is better for the children because that is what he can afford.  He said he currently earns a salary of USD400.00 per month and can only contribute US$800 per term for the two children to whatever option becomes available.  It is the respondent’s contention that if the children are sent away to Springvale, they will feel abandoned, especially considering that the parents are now going through a divorce.  He said that he can monitor the children as they do home schooling online.  He said that one does not need to be a teacher to supervise the children as they do lessons online.  The respondent said that he has a lot of financial debts at the moment hence his disposable income of only USD400.00 per month.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[14]      I then had an opportunity to interview the children in chambers.  They both expressed a keen interest to be in formal school.  They both like the idea of being in boarding school than day school.  They want to make friends and engage in sports.  They do not like online lessons because they do not believe they are fun.  Having had the experience of being in a formal school at Chisipite Junior School and the experience of home schooling after they were withdrawn from Chisipite, they said that they believe that attending a formal school is really nice. They said that whilst they will miss their parents whom they both love very much,  they still want to go to boarding school because they will not be away for too long since they will be at school from Monday morning to Friday afternoon. They said that they both understand that their parents are on separation and are going through a divorce. They however do not believe that by going to boarding school they will feel abandoned.   </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[15]    <span lang="EN-ZW" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-ZW">As was submitted by the respondent’s counsel it is correct that the Constitution<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> has clothed parents and guardians with wide powers under the freedom of conscience as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="color:black">Parents and guardians of minor children have the right to determine, in accordance with their beliefs, the moral and religious upbringing of their children, provided that they do not prejudice the rights to which the children are entitled under this Constitution including their rights to education, health safety and welfare.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            <span lang="EN-ZW" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It is also correct that ZHOU J in <i>Sadiqi </i>v<i> Muteswa</i> HH 249/20 said that:-</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="background:white"><span style="color:black">The right to family and parental care which is enshrined in s 81(1)(d) of the Constitution includes the child’s right to be cared for by both natural parents, see Iain Currie and J. de Waal, <em>Bill of Rights Handbook 5th Ed. p. 607.  </em>Care means more than just channeling monetary maintenance to the child through the mother.  It entails the opportunity to influence and shape the personality, character and life of the child by spending time with the child and being involved in making choices about the child’s life and future.     </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It is on the basis of these authorities that the respondent’s counsel submitted that the applicant who is the custodian parent cannot enrol the children at any school without consulting the respondent. It was submitted that it was wrong for the applicant to enrol the children at Springvale House without consulting the respondent. Her decision was said to be unreasonable because neither the applicant nor the respondent can afford the fees at the school.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[16]      However, despite these submissions, I am inclined to grant the applicant’s application to be allowed to enrol the children at Springvale House, Marondera for the following reasons. The applicant as the custodian parent made efforts on her own without the assistance of the respondent and sourced a 50% bursary for the children. This enabled her to enrol the children at Springvale House, Marondera.  Again without the assistance of the respondent, she went on to pay the deposit of USD$3 600 which was needed for the children to secure their places.  This is despite the fact that she is not employed and that the respondent has not been giving her any financial assistance since September 2020 when he withdrew paying fees for the children at Chisipite Junior School. Her effort shows that she has her children’s best interests at heart. In any case her application is not about seeking financial assistance from the respondent.  Whilst the applicant really wants the respondent to play his role as the father by paying school fees, she indicated that she will do so by herself if he is unwilling to pay or contribute. What motivated her application is the fact that the respondent wrote to Springvale House indicating that he did not want his children to learn there and that he had not been consulted when the children were enrolled. So, the argument by the respondent that the children should not be enrolled at Springvale House, Marondera because both the applicant and himself cannot afford the fees is without merit. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[17]      The applicant motivated her application by submitting to the court the opportunities the school has to offer – academics, extra-curricular activities and social development. Besides, there is the bursary which will even take the children to high school.  The children are also excited about going to boarding school. The applicant indicated that the respondent will still enjoy his access rights during weekends, school holidays and public holidays as has always been the case.  Further, the applicant said that both parents are free to attend the various sporting activities at school on Wednesdays if they so wish.  The applicant has no problems with the respondent contributing whatever he is able to contribute towards the children’s education. This obviously allays any fears the respondent might have about an undue financial burden being placed on him.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[18]      In any case in September 2020 the respondent wrote to Chisipite Junior School asking to be removed as the parent responsible for paying school bills. He said that he was no longer assuming any liability to pay any school fees for the children. He further indicated that the applicant had volunteered to be the sole responsible person to pay the fees.  He asked all future bills to be sent to the applicant and the fees records to reflect the applicant. If he had no problems with the applicant assuming responsibility over the children’s school fees then when he knew fully well that she was not employed, then there is no reason why he should be worried about the applicant enrolling the children at a formal school now. It means she is capable and she has already demonstrated her capabilities. Over and above managing to get a bursary for the children, she also managed to pay the USD3 600 deposit needed for securing the children’s places.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[19]      Whilst it is necessary for parents to consult each other on issues to do with their children’s welfare including education, the court understands that sometimes it is not possible. One example is the instant case where the parents are on separation and are not on talking terms. It was the applicant’s evidence that the respondent is a very difficult man and that it is difficult to talk to him about anything. He wants everything to be done his way or there is no way at all. The law shows that the custodian parent is entitled to control the child’s daily life; to decide all questions relating to its education, training, and religious upbringing among other things.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> The non-custodian parent can only challenge the custodian parent’s choice(s) if such choice is not in the best interests of the child(ren).  In <i>Berens</i> v <i>Berens </i>HH 28/09 a case which also involved a challenge to the custodian parent’s choice of school, </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHITAKUNYE J</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> had this to say:- </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It should thus be clear that the custodian parent is empowered to make decisions on the day to day needs of the child without having to refer to the non-custodian parent. One of those decisions is the choice of school for the child. In the exercise of such custody she may, if she so desires, consult the non-custodian parent. The non-custodian parent can apply for intervention in the choice or decision made by the custodian parent where such decision is not in the best interest of the child or the decision is inimical to the child. In such intervention the applicant needs to establish or show that the choice or decision is unreasonable or irrational or that no reasonable custodian parent can make such a decision and that such a decision is therefore not in the best interest of the child.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            In <i>Duncan</i> v <i>Louw</i> 2015 ZW HHC @ 201, this court reiterated that it will only interfere with the decision of the custodial parent if the decision is prejudicial to the child.  In <i>casu</i> the mere fact that the respondent was not consulted before the children were enrolled at Springvale House is not good enough a reason for the court to interfere with the applicant’s choice of school. It would have been well and good if the applicant had chosen the school in consultation with the respondent, but that did not happen because the two are not on talking terms. They can hardly find common ground according to the applicant. Even with the assistance of their legal practitioners they failed to settle this matter amicably. They failed to agree on the school the children should attend and whether they should do home schooling or go to a formal school. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[20]      As has already been discussed elsewhere above, the applicant managed to demonstrate that her decision to enrol the children at Springvale was not unreasonable or irrational. From September 2020 to date, she has single handedly taken care of the children’s educational needs without the assistance of the respondent. It is further interesting to note that one of the reasons why the respondent is averse to the children attending Springvale House is that he is worried that they (the applicant and himself) cannot afford the fees there, yet he is amenable to the children attending Chisipite Junior School where the fees are USD3500.00 per term for the two children. The difference with Springvale House is only USD300.00. There is not much of a difference in the fees between the two schools. Despite this, the respondent goes on to say even if the children are to learn at Chisipite Junior School, all he can contribute is USD800.00 per term for both children. This means that whichever school the children attend, the applicant will carry the burden of paying the bulk of the fees.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[21]      What this essentially shows is that the issue is not about money. The respondent simply does not want the children to be in boarding school. His argument is that boarding school is not best for the children because they are too young and that they will feel abandoned since the parents are going through a divorce. The children are going into grade 7 and grade 4. Springvale is a boarding school for grade ones right up to grade seven. The respondent did not adduce any evidence which supports his assertion that the children will be prejudiced or affected psychologically if they go to boarding school. The applicant as the custodian parent who lives with the children on a daily basis is of the view that the children will benefit immensely by attending boarding school. The children are also of the same view. In any case the children will be weekly borders spending the weekends at home. The respondent will be spending time with them every alternate weekend as per the access terms the parties agreed upon. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[22]      From the foregoing the respondent did not manage to show that the applicant’s decision to enrol the children at Springvale House, Marondera is irrational and not in the best interests of the children. I will thus grant the application for the children to be enrolled at this school.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[23]      It be and is hereby ordered that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application be and is hereby granted.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The minor children X (born 24 September 2010) and Y (born 2 July 2013) shall be educated at Springvale Junior School, Marondera.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant is authorised to sign all such documents and take all such steps as may be necessary for the full education of the children and participation in the activities of the school.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent be and is hereby granted access to the minor children, X (born 24 September 2010) and Y (born 2 July 2013) as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                        <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a)</span></span>        <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Access to both children on alternate weekends.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        (b)        Access to both children on alternate birthdays for each child.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        (c)        Access to both children on alternate public holidays.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        (d)       Access to both children for half of each school holiday for a continuous                                         undisturbed period with the parties alternating on each school holiday                    </span></span>                        <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">regarding who has access for the first half of the holiday and the last half.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">     5.    </span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Each party shall bear its own costs. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Matsika Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Rubaya and Chatambudza Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> S 60 (3) of the Constitution of Zimbabwe, 2013.</span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Leonard Sibanda</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> HH 207/18; and  <i>Ralph</i> v <i>Vuuren</i> HH 5/2009.  </span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-c7c17934da4ac4a5266169e046d2195fb70b207f3f22262ddc3768abfe2339bb"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right">HH 17-22</p> <p class="text-align-right">HC6592/21</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">WENDY KATHRYN BOWES (nee SCHIONNING)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CLYDE MATHHEW BOWES</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE<br /> MUREMBA J<br /> HARARE, 2 December 2021 and 19 January 2022</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Urgent Chamber Application </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">OT Sanyika,</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TL Mapuranga</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> with <i>A Rubaya &amp; T Makamure</i>, for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            MUREMBA J:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[1]        The two parties are on separation pending divorce.  They have two children together both girls aged eleven and eight years old. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[2]        They married in New Zealand, were resident in South Africa for the greater part of their marriage and decided to relocate to Zimbabwe in August 2019.  However, the respondent who is employed in South Africa remained behind when the applicant and the children moved to Zimbabwe.  The plan was he would follow to Zimbabwe later on.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[3]        Unfortunately by the time the parties decided to relocate to Zimbabwe, their marriage was already on the rocks.  They continued to grow apart after the applicant and the children had moved to Zimbabwe. The applicant found affection from someone else and the parties eventually separated. The applicant and the children moved out of the respondent’s mother’s house in Borrowdale where they were staying. The applicant filed for divorce. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[4]        Initially the children were enrolled at Chisipite Junior School, but were withdrawn after the respondent had withdrawn financial support according to the applicant.  It is a fact that on 28 September 2020 the respondent wrote to Chisipite Junior School asking to be removed as the responsible parent for paying school bills.  He said that with effect from that date he was no longer assuming any liability to pay any school fees for the children.  He further indicated that the applicant had volunteered to be the sole responsible person to pay the fees.  He asked all future bills to be sent to the applicant and the fees records to reflect the applicant.  He however, asked to remain on the mailing list for newsletters and progress reports.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[5]        The applicant continued the children at the school with the aid of family and friends.  However, she later withdrew them for a term because of the financial burden.  The period of withdrawal coincided with the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. She then home schooled them.  She is a teacher by profession.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[6]        The applicant however, believes that the children can only get the best learning experience from a formal school set up.  She then sought a bursary for them for January 2022 and had them enrolled at Springvale House, Marondera.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[7]        The respondent however, went on to write an email to Springvale House saying that he had not been consulted as the guardian and that he did not want his girls in boarding school.  They had been offered places as weekly boarders.  As a result, the school withdrew its offer.  The applicant had already paid the deposit needed by the school through her family.  The respondent said he wanted to home school the children.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[8]        In her present application the applicant wanted an interim order interdicting the respondent from interfering with her custodial rights.  She also wanted to be awarded sole custody of the children.  On the return date, she was going to seek the same reliefs.  This made the reliefs which were being sought defective.  I brought this to the attention of the applicant on the date of the first hearing. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[9]        At that first hearing I postponed the matter to enable the parties to engage each other with a view of settling the matter amicably.  Unfortunately they failed to reach a settlement.  However, they managed to come up with a draft order which had three options.  They asked to argue the matter and for the court to then give an order from the three options that they came up with. The parties also included the respondent’s rights of access to go with each option. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[10]      The three options are that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a)        The children shall be educated through home schooling (This is what the respondent wants) ; or</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            (b)        The children shall be educated at Springvale Junior School (This is what the                                   applicant wants. It is a boarding school.) ; or</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c )       The children shall be educated at Chisipite Junior School (This is what the respondent wants in the event that the option of home schooling does not find favour with the court. It is a day school).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[11]      At the hearing, the parties through their legal practitioners asked to give <i>viva voce</i> evidence on their options.  I allowed the request in light of rule 60 (8) of the High Court Rules, 2021 which provides that: - </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(8) A judge to whom papers are submitted in terms of subrules</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(6) or (7) may—</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(a)  require the applicant or the deponent of any affidavit</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      or any other person who may, in his or her opinion, be</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      able to assist in the resolution of the matter to appear</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">                   before him or her in chambers or in court as may to</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      him or her seem convenient and provide, on oath or</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      otherwise as the judge may consider necessary, such</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">      further information as the judge may require;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[12]      The applicant despite being a qualified teacher wants the children to be educated at Springvale House in Marondera which is a boarding school because of the following reasons.  The school is one of the best schools in Zimbabwe.  It offers a good package which includes sports and academics.  It offers boarding facilities from grade one to grade seven.  From there the children go to Peterhouse Girls High School.  The school is situated in a game reserve and the children are bush children.  They love nature and outdoor life.  Generally, formal schooling is better than home schooling.  At a formal school there are trained teachers and the learning is structured.  The children get time to learn, do sports and rest.  The applicant would want the respondent to contribute towards the children’s fees as a co-parent.  She got a 50% bursary. So, the other 50% should come from the parents.  This 50% amounts to US$3800.00 per term for the two children.  Although the applicant is not allowed to work because of the nature of her visa, she says if the respondent refuses to pay for the children’s fees she will pay for them with the help of her family and friends.  The applicant said that the children will be away at school for four days a week.  They leave on Monday morning and return on Friday afternoon.  The bursary the applicant got extends to Peterhouse Girls High School.  It will only be withdrawn if the children fail or misbehave.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[13]      The respondent objects to the children being sent to boarding school because of the following reasons.  He cannot afford it because he is leaving employment soon, having tendered a notice of resignation.  He has no assets that the applicant says he has.  He believes home schooling is better for the children because that is what he can afford.  He said he currently earns a salary of USD400.00 per month and can only contribute US$800 per term for the two children to whatever option becomes available.  It is the respondent’s contention that if the children are sent away to Springvale, they will feel abandoned, especially considering that the parents are now going through a divorce.  He said that he can monitor the children as they do home schooling online.  He said that one does not need to be a teacher to supervise the children as they do lessons online.  The respondent said that he has a lot of financial debts at the moment hence his disposable income of only USD400.00 per month.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[14]      I then had an opportunity to interview the children in chambers.  They both expressed a keen interest to be in formal school.  They both like the idea of being in boarding school than day school.  They want to make friends and engage in sports.  They do not like online lessons because they do not believe they are fun.  Having had the experience of being in a formal school at Chisipite Junior School and the experience of home schooling after they were withdrawn from Chisipite, they said that they believe that attending a formal school is really nice. They said that whilst they will miss their parents whom they both love very much,  they still want to go to boarding school because they will not be away for too long since they will be at school from Monday morning to Friday afternoon. They said that they both understand that their parents are on separation and are going through a divorce. They however do not believe that by going to boarding school they will feel abandoned.   </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[15]    <span lang="EN-ZW" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-ZW">As was submitted by the respondent’s counsel it is correct that the Constitution<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> has clothed parents and guardians with wide powers under the freedom of conscience as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="color:black">Parents and guardians of minor children have the right to determine, in accordance with their beliefs, the moral and religious upbringing of their children, provided that they do not prejudice the rights to which the children are entitled under this Constitution including their rights to education, health safety and welfare.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            <span lang="EN-ZW" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It is also correct that ZHOU J in <i>Sadiqi </i>v<i> Muteswa</i> HH 249/20 said that:-</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="background:white"><span style="color:black">The right to family and parental care which is enshrined in s 81(1)(d) of the Constitution includes the child’s right to be cared for by both natural parents, see Iain Currie and J. de Waal, <em>Bill of Rights Handbook 5th Ed. p. 607.  </em>Care means more than just channeling monetary maintenance to the child through the mother.  It entails the opportunity to influence and shape the personality, character and life of the child by spending time with the child and being involved in making choices about the child’s life and future.     </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It is on the basis of these authorities that the respondent’s counsel submitted that the applicant who is the custodian parent cannot enrol the children at any school without consulting the respondent. It was submitted that it was wrong for the applicant to enrol the children at Springvale House without consulting the respondent. Her decision was said to be unreasonable because neither the applicant nor the respondent can afford the fees at the school.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[16]      However, despite these submissions, I am inclined to grant the applicant’s application to be allowed to enrol the children at Springvale House, Marondera for the following reasons. The applicant as the custodian parent made efforts on her own without the assistance of the respondent and sourced a 50% bursary for the children. This enabled her to enrol the children at Springvale House, Marondera.  Again without the assistance of the respondent, she went on to pay the deposit of USD$3 600 which was needed for the children to secure their places.  This is despite the fact that she is not employed and that the respondent has not been giving her any financial assistance since September 2020 when he withdrew paying fees for the children at Chisipite Junior School. Her effort shows that she has her children’s best interests at heart. In any case her application is not about seeking financial assistance from the respondent.  Whilst the applicant really wants the respondent to play his role as the father by paying school fees, she indicated that she will do so by herself if he is unwilling to pay or contribute. What motivated her application is the fact that the respondent wrote to Springvale House indicating that he did not want his children to learn there and that he had not been consulted when the children were enrolled. So, the argument by the respondent that the children should not be enrolled at Springvale House, Marondera because both the applicant and himself cannot afford the fees is without merit. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[17]      The applicant motivated her application by submitting to the court the opportunities the school has to offer – academics, extra-curricular activities and social development. Besides, there is the bursary which will even take the children to high school.  The children are also excited about going to boarding school. The applicant indicated that the respondent will still enjoy his access rights during weekends, school holidays and public holidays as has always been the case.  Further, the applicant said that both parents are free to attend the various sporting activities at school on Wednesdays if they so wish.  The applicant has no problems with the respondent contributing whatever he is able to contribute towards the children’s education. This obviously allays any fears the respondent might have about an undue financial burden being placed on him.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[18]      In any case in September 2020 the respondent wrote to Chisipite Junior School asking to be removed as the parent responsible for paying school bills. He said that he was no longer assuming any liability to pay any school fees for the children. He further indicated that the applicant had volunteered to be the sole responsible person to pay the fees.  He asked all future bills to be sent to the applicant and the fees records to reflect the applicant. If he had no problems with the applicant assuming responsibility over the children’s school fees then when he knew fully well that she was not employed, then there is no reason why he should be worried about the applicant enrolling the children at a formal school now. It means she is capable and she has already demonstrated her capabilities. Over and above managing to get a bursary for the children, she also managed to pay the USD3 600 deposit needed for securing the children’s places.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[19]      Whilst it is necessary for parents to consult each other on issues to do with their children’s welfare including education, the court understands that sometimes it is not possible. One example is the instant case where the parents are on separation and are not on talking terms. It was the applicant’s evidence that the respondent is a very difficult man and that it is difficult to talk to him about anything. He wants everything to be done his way or there is no way at all. The law shows that the custodian parent is entitled to control the child’s daily life; to decide all questions relating to its education, training, and religious upbringing among other things.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> The non-custodian parent can only challenge the custodian parent’s choice(s) if such choice is not in the best interests of the child(ren).  In <i>Berens</i> v <i>Berens </i>HH 28/09 a case which also involved a challenge to the custodian parent’s choice of school, </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHITAKUNYE J</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> had this to say:- </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It should thus be clear that the custodian parent is empowered to make decisions on the day to day needs of the child without having to refer to the non-custodian parent. One of those decisions is the choice of school for the child. In the exercise of such custody she may, if she so desires, consult the non-custodian parent. The non-custodian parent can apply for intervention in the choice or decision made by the custodian parent where such decision is not in the best interest of the child or the decision is inimical to the child. In such intervention the applicant needs to establish or show that the choice or decision is unreasonable or irrational or that no reasonable custodian parent can make such a decision and that such a decision is therefore not in the best interest of the child.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            In <i>Duncan</i> v <i>Louw</i> 2015 ZW HHC @ 201, this court reiterated that it will only interfere with the decision of the custodial parent if the decision is prejudicial to the child.  In <i>casu</i> the mere fact that the respondent was not consulted before the children were enrolled at Springvale House is not good enough a reason for the court to interfere with the applicant’s choice of school. It would have been well and good if the applicant had chosen the school in consultation with the respondent, but that did not happen because the two are not on talking terms. They can hardly find common ground according to the applicant. Even with the assistance of their legal practitioners they failed to settle this matter amicably. They failed to agree on the school the children should attend and whether they should do home schooling or go to a formal school. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[20]      As has already been discussed elsewhere above, the applicant managed to demonstrate that her decision to enrol the children at Springvale was not unreasonable or irrational. From September 2020 to date, she has single handedly taken care of the children’s educational needs without the assistance of the respondent. It is further interesting to note that one of the reasons why the respondent is averse to the children attending Springvale House is that he is worried that they (the applicant and himself) cannot afford the fees there, yet he is amenable to the children attending Chisipite Junior School where the fees are USD3500.00 per term for the two children. The difference with Springvale House is only USD300.00. There is not much of a difference in the fees between the two schools. Despite this, the respondent goes on to say even if the children are to learn at Chisipite Junior School, all he can contribute is USD800.00 per term for both children. This means that whichever school the children attend, the applicant will carry the burden of paying the bulk of the fees.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[21]      What this essentially shows is that the issue is not about money. The respondent simply does not want the children to be in boarding school. His argument is that boarding school is not best for the children because they are too young and that they will feel abandoned since the parents are going through a divorce. The children are going into grade 7 and grade 4. Springvale is a boarding school for grade ones right up to grade seven. The respondent did not adduce any evidence which supports his assertion that the children will be prejudiced or affected psychologically if they go to boarding school. The applicant as the custodian parent who lives with the children on a daily basis is of the view that the children will benefit immensely by attending boarding school. The children are also of the same view. In any case the children will be weekly borders spending the weekends at home. The respondent will be spending time with them every alternate weekend as per the access terms the parties agreed upon. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[22]      From the foregoing the respondent did not manage to show that the applicant’s decision to enrol the children at Springvale House, Marondera is irrational and not in the best interests of the children. I will thus grant the application for the children to be enrolled at this school.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[23]      It be and is hereby ordered that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application be and is hereby granted.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The minor children X (born 24 September 2010) and Y (born 2 July 2013) shall be educated at Springvale Junior School, Marondera.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant is authorised to sign all such documents and take all such steps as may be necessary for the full education of the children and participation in the activities of the school.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent be and is hereby granted access to the minor children, X (born 24 September 2010) and Y (born 2 July 2013) as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                        <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a)</span></span>        <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Access to both children on alternate weekends.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        (b)        Access to both children on alternate birthdays for each child.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        (c)        Access to both children on alternate public holidays.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        (d)       Access to both children for half of each school holiday for a continuous                                         undisturbed period with the parties alternating on each school holiday                    </span></span>                        <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">regarding who has access for the first half of the holiday and the last half.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">     5.    </span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Each party shall bear its own costs. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Matsika Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Rubaya and Chatambudza Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> S 60 (3) of the Constitution of Zimbabwe, 2013.</span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Leonard Sibanda</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> HH 207/18; and  <i>Ralph</i> v <i>Vuuren</i> HH 5/2009.  </span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Fri, 06 May 2022 09:47:29 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12433 at http://zimlii.org Kanyekanye v Kanyekanye (Nee Sithole) (238 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 238 (14 April 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/238 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Kanyekanye v Kanyekanye (Nee Sithole) (238 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 238 (14 April 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2139" hreflang="x-default">custody of child</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2195" hreflang="x-default">divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1866" hreflang="en">Matrimonial Property Law</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 04/26/2022 - 10:22</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/238/2022-zwhhc-238.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=39338">2022-zwhhc-238.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/238/2022-zwhhc-238.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=367294">2022-zwhhc-238.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">1<sdtpr></sdtpr></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 238-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 566/20</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CELESTINO CHENJERAI KANYEKANYE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MEMORY KANYEKANYE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(Nee Sithole)</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TAGU J</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 29 September, 1, 22, 25, 29 October, </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">19 November 2021 and 14 April 2022</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Civil Trial-Divorce</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">E Dzoro</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for plaintiff</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">S Katsuwa</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for defendant </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TAGU J:    The plaintiff and the defendant were married in terms of the then Marriage Act [<i>Chapter 37</i>] now [<i>Chapter 5:11</i>] on 19<sup>th</sup> December 1999 at Mutare. During the subsistence of the marriage they were blessed with two children namely Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye now a major born on the 28<sup>th</sup> September 2000 and X born on the 24<sup>th</sup> of March 2009 still a minor. During the subsistence of the marriage the parties also acquired various movable and immovable properties. The following are the movable properties:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Lexus LS460 ABT 3797,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Toyota ADP 6914,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 Maroon lounge suits (games room), 2 coffee tables,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Black lounge suite, 3 coffee tables,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dining room table, chairs and cabinet,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All kitchen utensils,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 Fridges, 2 deep freezers, microwave,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stove, two plate stove with oven, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">3 televisions</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Study desk and chair, computer, printer,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Guest bedroom bed and headboard, dressing table, coffee table stools,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Main bedroom bed, bedroom suite, blanket box, lounge furniture,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 x kids bedroom bed, headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 x kids bedroom bathtubs,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maid’s bedroom bed and headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">White leather lounge suite, portable radio,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dish washing machine,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Clothes Washing machine and dryer,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Several curtains.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The following are the immovable properties acquired by the parties during the subsistence of the marriage:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue, Harare.   </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The marriage relationship between the parties has now broken down irretrievably. On the 24<sup>th</sup> January 2020 the Plaintiff issued summons for divorce. Both parties agreed that the marriage relationship has irretrievably broken down to an extent that there are no prospects of restoration of a normal marriage. They also agreed on how the above movable properties should be distributed between themselves.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In their joint pre-trial conference minute the parties agreed that a decree of divorce be granted. That the non-custodial parent shall have reasonable access to the Minor child Tendai Kyle Kanyekanye on weekends from Friday 1600hrs to Sunday 1400hrs, and during school terms on the first two (2) weeks of each school holiday and on alternative public holidays. They agreed that both parties shall contribute equally towards paying School fees and Educational Requirements for the minor child Tendai Kyle Kanyekanye until the minor child attains 18 years or becomes self –supporting whichever occurs first. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This court is therefore being called upon to determine the following ancillary issues,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Plaintiff should be awarded custody of the minor child X?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">How much maintenance should the non-custodial parent pay for upkeep of the minor child X?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Plaintiff should contribute towards the educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye who is abroad?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the postnuptial agreement entered into between the parties is binding?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Defendant should be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue, and 50% of Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Defendant should be awarded the movable properties claimed by the Defendant?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Both parties filed closing submissions. The court in determining this case will take into account the closing submissions, the bundle of documents Exhibit “A” as well as the evidence led in court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">X is a boy child. As regards the first issue whether or not the Plaintiff should be awarded custody of the minor child X the Plaintiff in his examination in chief led evidence to the effect that the Defendant works in Shamva and is not available to monitor and supervise the minor child on a daily basis. He further led indisputable evidence that the minor child’s school performance is deteriorating and the school teacher had several complaints about it. This piece of evidence was confirmed by the defendant who stated that she tried to assist the child in the best possible manner under the circumstances including talking to him on a mobile phone to monitor his homework. Defendant even admitted that she left the minor child with the maid who signed the minor child’s homework diaries. She further admitted that she works in Shamwa. The witness called by the defendant Lovemore Tauzen also confirmed that Defendant is always away from Mondays to Fridays. In her testimony she admitted and corroborated the Plaintiff’s evidence that at one time she left the now major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye a girl child with the Plaintiff when she was 9 years old, and X was 1 year old while she was residing with her male boss and later took X to Mutare. Defendant generally put emphasis on her being awarded custody solely because she is the biological mother of the minor child. Defendant put importance on the fact that she gave birth to the child and the child needs motherly care and love. She did not advance evidence to show that the Plaintiff is not a suitable custodian.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In determining custody of a minor child the unequivocal principle that is applied is “the best interest of the minor child”. In <i>Denhere</i> v <i>Denhere </i>SC 51/17 custody of the minor child was awarded to the father as it was deemed to be in the best interest of the child. See also <i>Hackim</i> v <i>Hackim</i> 1988 (2) ZLR 61.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Admittedly, the Defendant is the biological mother of X. It is trite that that alone is not the determining factor, but the best interest of the child. In <i>Saqidi</i> v <i>Muteswa </i>HH -249-20 the learned Judge Zhou J had this to say-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The approach urged here recognizes that parental roles do not reside in the biological make up </span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">of a person. The anatomical constitution of a person as a man or woman is an act of biology, of nature, yet, the gender roles pertaining to the roles of mother and father in bringing up a child are social constructs which must be challenged in the light of the changing dynamics of our society.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, the Defendant works out of Harare while the Plaintiff works in Harare. The Defendant sought to mind the child’s affairs through the telephone and delegate the duties to a maid. The negative consequences of this <i>status quo</i> was shown in the Plaintiff’s evidence and confirmed by the Defendant as poor performance at school, general abandonment, lack of grooming from the teacher’s comments and the solitude of the minor child who is deprived of the daily love and affection due to him from the daily interaction with an available parent. Arguably, if Defendant were to be awarded custody, during the week days the minor child would be deprived of parental attention from either of the parties. The Defendant would be in Shamwa. Over the weekend when the Defendant is available the child will be with the Plaintiff most of the time and the child would not see his mother as the Plaintiff would be the one with access as per the parties’ agreement captured in the joint pre-trial conference minute. I foresee nothing wrong if the custody is awarded to the father. In <i>Tangirai</i> v <i>Tangirai </i>HC 30/2011 [ZWHHC65/2013] upon divorce the learned <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Guvava J</span> (as she then was) awarded custody of four-year minor children to their father as the mother was a cross border trader and was not always available. The learned judge had the following to say:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The problem that arises when she is away will in my view continue to present itself because the children are day scholars and will need to attend school on a daily basis.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The scenario would be the same in the present case as the minor child is a day scholar who is minded by a maid.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This brings me to the issue of how much maintenance should be paid by the non-custodial parent. The Plaintiff led evidence to the effect that if he is granted custody US$50.00 would be sufficient per month as he is in a position to supplement. On the other hand the Defendant led evidence that US$2000. 00 is what is required for a then 12-year old boy outside of school fees at the time she filed her plea. It is common cause that both parents have the responsibility of maintaining a minor child. It was agreed at pre-Trial Conference that both parties would meet the school fees and school requirements of the minor child equally. In the case of <i>Mubaiwa </i>v <i>Chigwanda</i> HC 1249/2012 (2015) ZWHHC246 <span style="font-variant:small-caps">U</span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-variant:small-caps">chena </span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-variant:small-caps">J</span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> (as he then was) stated that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“The issue of the responsible person’s means is an important consideration determining maintenance applications.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the prevailing economic hardships I am of the view that if the non-custodial parent pays US$50.00 and the custodial parent played his/her role and contributed the other US$50.00 to the minor child’s day to day upkeep totaling US$ 100.00 excluding school fees and school requirements would be very reasonable. A sum of US$2000.00 per month as maintenance for a minor child would be unreasonable. If the Defendant feels that US$2000.00 is reasonable, then as a parent who also have a responsibility to look after the minor child there would be nothing wrong if she is prepared to fork out an extra US$1900.00 and give it to the minor child per month. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As far as the parties’ contribution towards the educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye who is abroad is concerned, the law is very clear that both parties must contribute until the child completes her educational requirements. However, each part would be required to do so according to each part’s means. However, let me at this juncture state that while the Plaintiff is willing to contribute to Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye’s educational requirements, there has been a discord as to how she finds her way where she is. Plaintiff wanted Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye to go to a University in South Africa. Plaintiff further led evidence on how Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye was sent to Cyprus by the Defendant with neither his consent nor knowledge. He only got to know of her where about later from the maid. He said he lost contact with her and broke down while on the witness stand. Plaintiff further explained that he did not approve of the Cyprus University as it ranked very low, lower than the University of Zimbabwe. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff led evidence which was confirmed by the Defendant that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye subsequently left the Cyprus University and went to a university in Poland. The Plaintiff showed that the Vistula University that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye was now attending in Poland is still ranked lower than the University of Zimbabwe and even lower than the Cyprus University Natasha had initially enrolled in. Plaintiff showed further that the Defendant was now seeking an order for him to fund what he termed the irresponsible lifestyle of their daughter who was hopping from one University to another and from one country to another, more so to worse universities and repeating academic years. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was confirmed by both parties that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye is now an adult and Defendant did not lead any evidence on her <i>locus standi</i> to claim maintenance on behalf of a major. Plaintiff is of the view that outside of the irresponsible conduct of Defendant as a parent of taking Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye outside the country without his consent as the father, fund her escapades, and furthermore facilitating her going to low ranking universities, and the fact that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye despite her being his daughter is mow a major who made her own and mother’s decision without her father’s knowledge and consent ought to put this matter to rest in favour of the Plaintiff. In the case of <i>Koumides</i> v <i>Koumides </i>HC 6886 ZWHHC114 (2010) <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Mavhangira J</span> (as she then was) held that the application by plaintiff (who was the mother of the child) for maintenance for a child who was a major at tertiary level was bad at law and it was dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the present case Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye had always studied in Zimbabwe being funded by both parents. The Defendant decided clandestinely to take her to Cyprus without informing Plaintiff. To now ask Plaintiff to fund international tuition when local Universities could have served a better purpose academically would be unjust. To ask Plaintiff to sponsor such delinquency would be supporting the deplorable conduct by Defendant which conduct she continued to exhibit even during trial. In any event, at Pre-trial Conference Defendant confirmed she was able to pay Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye’s university costs. Defendant set her bed so she must lie on it. In her initial plea the Defendant said she was prepared to pay Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye’s fees knowing fully well that she had made a unilateral decision to send the major child abroad without the knowledge and consent of the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This brings me to the issue of whether or not the post naptual agreement entered into between the parties is binding or not. The Plaintiff maintains that it is binding while the Defendant said it is not binding.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Section 7(5) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [Chapter 5.13] states: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“In granting a decree of divorce….an appropriate court may, <b>in accordance with a written agreement between the parties, </b>make an order<b> </b>with regard<b> </b>to the matters referred in paragraph (a) and (b) of subsection (1).” (My emphasis).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the present case there were divorce proceedings case number HC 6917/18 that the Plaintiff instituted and subsequently withdrew. Prior to institution of the said proceedings parties herein had entered into their own agreement on proprietary distribution and signed the agreement on pp 27-31 of the bundle of documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At trial of this current matter the Defendant sought to claim that the agreement was entered into when she was sleepy and she had to go to work the following day. The excuse used by the Defendant was an attempt to evade the agreement. This is absurd to say the least as I will demonstrate below. In essence the Defendant confirmed knowledge of the agreement in her testimony. In the same testimony she confirmed that she signed the agreement and endorsed on every page her initials. The Defendant did not lead any evidence to legally excuse herself from the agreement, “she just did not wish to be bound by it”.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All the facts and evidence led by both Plaintiff and Defendant confirmed that there was and is an existing and valid written agreement between the parties. The Defendant in her actions, pleadings and testimony was actually confirming the agreement. The Defendant was in agreement with every content of the agreement except the distribution of some of the immovable property which clearly she decided to change her mind on. The court noted that the distribution of the movable property in Plaintiff’s declaration was according to the terms of the agreement and the Defendant embraced it. The Defendant only added items that were omitted by the Plaintiff, which items she claimed in her initial Plea and her amended Plea. The parties proceeded to engage a lawyer and that was in accordance with her agreement on page 30 of the buddle of documents. Furthermore, in accordance with the agreement on the same page, the Defendant was actually given access to the Borrowdale property until November 2018. The only item that the Defendant is disputing is the distribution of the immovable property and it is clear that it was an afterthought. The Defendant did not allege any duress or undue influence upon signing the agreement other than saying she did so when she was sleepy.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The facts therefore, showed that there was acquiescence to the agreement and that proves the Defendant’s state of mind when she signed the agreement and a long while after signing it. Defendant did not dispute certain facts in her evidence and these are confirmed by documentation produced before the court. On p 53 of the bundle of documents the Defendant sent to the Plaintiff a message asking when they would see a lawyer, an act which acquiesced the agreement which expressly stated that they were to engage a lawyer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Let me hasten to say on p 51 of the bundle of documents the Defendant sent an Ecocash payment of US$250.00 to the Plaintiff after Plaintiff informed her that the deposit for the legal fees was US$500.00 and he did not have funds to pay her share. That payment of half of the deposit was acquiescence to the agreement and not evidence of a sleepy person. The Defendant attended the meeting with the lawyer Mr <i>Joshua Shekede</i> and stood by the agreement, which was confirmed by Mr <i>Joshua Shekede</i> in his testimony and that was acquiescence to the agreement. When the lawyer Mr <i>Joshua Shekede</i> formed a WhatsApp group pp 35 to 51 of the bundle of documents to facilitate discussions on the issues to be presented before the court, the Defendant actively participated. The Defendant only raised issues on matters that were not in the agreement and that is to my view clear acquiescence to the agreement. The Defendant went on to furnish the lawyer with the description of her property on p 39 of the bundle of documents and that also is acquiescence to the agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The law on acquiescence is a well beaten path home. If the parties conduct themselves in a manner that shows their approval and consent to an agreement and does not show their dispute, then they are said to have acquiesced to the agreement. In <i>Fleiner</i> v <i>Fleiner &amp; Anor</i> HH 261/18 spouses that had divorced had a subsequent agreement on how to handle a property that they jointly owned, which property upon divorce remained jointly owned. The parties through emails to each other varied the order of the court on occupation and rentals and each followed through with the new arrangements. When first Respondent attempted to disassociate himself from the new agreement the court held that the conduct of first Respondent which conformed to the terms of the agreement amounted to acquiescence and he was bound by the new agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Again in <i>Revesai</i> v <i>Windmill</i> HH -790-16[ZWHHC 2016/790] an applicant wrote an email relinquishing possession of his vehicle to his employee and in the application tried to walk it back. The court held that the applicant acquiesced to respondent possessing his vehicle. In <i>Hepner</i> v <i>Roodepoort-Maraisburg Town Council</i> 1962 (4) SA 771 (A) <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Steyn CJ </span>said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">There is authority for the view that in the case of waiver by conduct, the conduct must leave no reasonable doubt as to the intention of surrendering the right in question.”</span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, Defendant by her conduct showed her intention to surrender her right to defend Plaintiff’s divorce summons, particularly on proprietary distribution. To that extend the agreement entered between the parties is binding. See also <i>Laws</i> v <i>Rutherford</i> 1924 AD 261.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I will now deal with the most contentious issue whether or not the Defendant should be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue, Harare and 50% of Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Qunnington, Borrowdale Harare. Both parties in their evidence in chief, and the closing submissions dealt with the laws dealing with the division, apportionment or distribution of assets of the spouses upon the dissolution of the marriage. Section 7 (1) (4) (a) to (g) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [<i>Chapter 5.13</i>] outlines the factors the court should consider in the exercise of its discretion in order to achieve an equitable distribution of the matrimonial estate. See also <i>Hatendi</i> v <i>Hatendi</i> 2001 (2) ZLR 530; Ncube v Ncube 1993 (1) ZLR 39(S) at 40H-41 A, <i>Shenje</i> v <i>Shenje </i>2001 (2) ZLR 160 at 163F; <i>Dzova</i> v <i>Dzova</i> HC 753/08. The <i>locus classicus</i> case of <i>Takafuma </i>v <i>Takafuma</i> 1994 (2) ZLR 103(S) sets out the manner in which assets of the spouses are distributed. The assets are grouped in baskets of “his” and “hers” and “theirs”. It is the basket of theirs that is shared between the parties first, thereafter there has to be a reason guided by section 7 of the Matrimonial Causes Act for the court to take from his to hers or vise versa. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I will deal with Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale Harare first. The undisputed facts are that before the parties separated they were staying as husband and wife in a rented house in Vinona Harare. The Plaintiff was the one paying rentals. He noted that the rentals were high and he had to save some money in order to move out of a rented house. Plaintiff saw an advertisement of a vacant stand which was being sold by one Bernard Mahara Mutangi, being Stand 693 Quinnington Township, Borrowdale Harare. Plaintiff was interested in the Stand and started purchasing it on or around 2008. He then finished purchasing the said Stand on the 23<sup>rd</sup> of August 2017. It is not in dispute that the Defendant contributed nothing to the purchase of the vacant Stand. In or around 2008 the Plaintiff put up a shell on the vacant Stand and the parties started staying in the shell or a skeleton structure with two rooms and no roof. Plaintiff led evidence to the effect that he put some iron sheets so that rain would not come in and some of the rooms did not have windows. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff further led evidence to the effect that in September 2010 the Defendant left the Stand because she could not accept to stay any longer in a shell or skeleton structure that he had put up. It was his further evidence that late 2008 or early 2009 he started some improvements on the stand and Defendant did not contribute anything. He said at the time the Defendant left the stand about 5% of improvements had been put up. He testified to the effect that the Defendant only came back to the stand in April 2013 after the Plaintiff had completed building on the stand in Borrowdale Harare. He said four days after visiting the stand in 2013 the Defendant gave him a card on the Valentine’s Day to say she had forgiven him for what she had done. The card was produced in court as an exhibit and the photographs of her standing inside and outside the house he had built were produced by consent.  Four weeks later the Defendant moved back into the house on the Borrowdale Stand from where she had been staying with her employer and later from No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue Harare which she had bought on her own while they were on separation. They then reconciled for a while but the Defendant finally moved out of the Borrowdale house and suggested that they formalize their divorce. It is important to note that the Plaintiff led evidence, produced receipts of the materials he bought for the construction of the Borrowdale house. According to his evidence the Defendant left the Stand when only 5% of the improvements had been done on the stand. The Plaintiff said the Defendant did not contribute anything at all to the construction of the house at number 693 Quinnington Township Borrowdale, because Defendant was not interested at all. In short he said the Defendant contributed nothing hence is not entitled to the 50% or any other percentage she is now claiming. It was his further evidence that when they were on separation from 2010 to 2013 each of them was dealing with each’s finances as they pleased. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In her evidence in chief the Defendant said they acquired the Borrowdale stand when they were still staying together as husband and wife. According to her evidence the Borrowdale stand was just a vacant ground. She admitted that she did not contribute anything to the purchase of the Borrowdale stand but said she had to make sure there was food on the table and she was paying the maid. As regards the construction of the Borrowdale house it was her evidence that in or about 2007 they went to China to buy items like suits which she was selling and contributed financially. She said she was claiming 50% share of the Borrowdale House.  During cross examination she was asked as to what she did by way of contributions to the construction of the house and she maintained that she contributed by selling suits. Asked as to how much she contributed her response was she could not tell. The following exchange further took place between her and the Plaintiff’s counsel:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced a single receipt?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not produce any because I did not think it would be required.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- How did you receive your salary?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It goes straight into my account.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced a single RTGS you made to Plaintiff?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not produce any.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced your bank statement showing payments to Plaintiff?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced even a single withdrawal slip from your account that tallies with any payment to Plaintiff?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Confirm Plaintiff did greater part of the construction?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I confirm</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Confirm in your 1<sup>st</sup> plea you were claiming 30%?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">My lawyer said so.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Confirm you now ask for 50% of the Borrowdale property?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Yes.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- And you want to retain 100% of 23 Kimmich Heights?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Correct.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant confirmed that the title Deeds to the stand are in the names of the Plaintiff but argued that the mere fact that the agreement of sale and the title deed is in the name of the Plaintiff is not a bar to transfer being effected to her.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I now deal with the issue whether or not the Defendant should be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue Harare as her sole and exclusive share. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The evidence led by the Plaintiff in respect of No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue is straight forward. It was his evidence that he came to know of this property in 2013 after they briefly reconciled and when Mr. Joshua Shekede asked them to disclose the properties they had at a time the initial agreement on how the distribution of the property was to be done upon divorce was drafted. He submitted that before separation the Defendant must have been saving her money since she managed to deposit for this stand in a space of one and half months. According to him the Defendant used to use her money as she pleased and did not tell him about the purchase of the stand in issue. He said he later leant that the Defendant entered into a 10-year mortgage bond secretly in respect of the stand. He produced the agreement of sale entered into between the Defendant and one Shillah Tatenda Machiri which is on p 120 of the bundle of documents and her Title Deed which is on page 15 respectively. So according to him he owned the Borrowdale property while the Defendant owned the property at No 18 Fife Avenue, Harare. So, the Defendant bought this property using her own means. Asked if he is not willing to share the said property the Plaintiff categorically refused and said each party must take is own property. In short, he is prepared to let the Defendant be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue as her exclusive share despite that he used to visit this property here and there.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the other hand the Defendant led evidence to the effect that she acquired the property at No. 23 Kimmich Heights personally when the Plaintiff chased her from the Borrowdale house. She confirmed the agreement of sale, the Title Deed and the fact that she personally paid the mortgage bond in respect of the said property. She maintained that she wants to retain 100% share of No. 23 Kimmich Heights and 50% of the Borrowdale house because she played a party in its construction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">What the evidence has shown is that two professionals succeeded in their careers but failed in their marriage. Both agreed that the marriage has irretrievably broken down. That each part had separate estate which they handled as they pleased at the exclusion of other. The evidence has further shown that it is in the best interest of the minor child Tendai Kyle Kanyekanye if custody is awarded to the Plaintiff and Defendant pays maintenance. The court further noted that it would not be fair for the Plaintiff to be ordered to pay for the educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye who is abroad. As to the distribution of the immovable properties, each must maintain their separate properties. In distributing the matrimonial properties the court relied heavily on the formula in the case of <i>Takafuma</i> v <i>Takafuma </i>supra, and the provisions of s 7 of the Matrimonial Causes Act. Having noted that each party acquired the immovable properties separately from the other, and only about 5% of improvements had been made on the Borrowdale property before parties separated, the court found it unjust to take from “his” and give to “hers” and <i>vice versa</i> in terms of s 7 of the Matrimonial Causes Act. If at all the Defendant had contributed on the 5% improvement, (which is doubtful) she benefited in acquiring the property at No. 23 Kimmich Heights. As to the sharing of movable properties the parties had agreed as to how the properties be shared. The Plaintiff had awarded most of the items to the Defendant in his declaration and the Defendant other than adding extra items that had been left out by the Plaintiff, is in agreement with the manner of distribution. In fact, the Defendant acquired the lion’s share of the movable properties as compared to what the Plaintiff acquired. In the result-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A decree of divorce be and is hereby granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff be and is hereby awarded custody of X born on the 24<sup>th</sup> March 2009, and that Defendant be and is hereby awarded reasonable access to the said child from Friday 1600hrs to Sunday 1400hrs, and during school terms on the first two (2) weeks of each school holiday and on alternative public Holidays and both parties shall contribute equally towards paying school fees and educational requirements for the minor child until the child attains 18 years or is self-supporting whichever occurs first.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant is hereby ordered to pay maintenance of X to the tune of US$50.00 per month until the child attains the age of 18 years or is self- supporting whichever occurs first.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant be and is hereby ordered to continue paying educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye born on the 28<sup>th</sup> September 2000 who is abroad as she had been doing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff is awarded the following movable assets as per the parties’ agreement-</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maroon lounge suit, coffee table,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Black lounge suit coffee table,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Fridge, deep freezer, microwave,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maroon lounge suit (games room), television</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Study desk, chair, Computer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant is awarded the following movable assets-</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Lexus LS460 ABT 3797,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Toyota ADP 6914,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dining room table, chairs and cabinet,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Fridge, deep freezer, microwave,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Study computer, coffee table, printer,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Guest bedroom bed and headboard, dressing table, coffee table stools,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Main bedroom bed, bedroom suit, blanket box, lounge furniture, television,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2x kids bedroom bed, headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2x kids bedroom bathtubs,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maid’s bedroom bed and headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">White leather lounge suite, portable radio and 2x coffee tables,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All kitchen utensils,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dish washing machine, clothes washing machine and dryer, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Two plate stove with oven;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Some curtains.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol start="7"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff be and is hereby awarded 100% share of Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale, Harare as his exclusive property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant be and is hereby awarded number 23 Kimmich Heights as her sole and exclusive property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Each party to bear its own costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dzoro &amp; Partners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, plaintiff’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">J Mambara &amp; Partners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, defendant’s legal practitioners       </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">     </span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-8d2d060011414c379eb8a265e7d1265cbeb5c65d1d9d84b5669b15e0f9187359"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">1<sdtpr></sdtpr></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 238-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 566/20</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CELESTINO CHENJERAI KANYEKANYE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MEMORY KANYEKANYE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(Nee Sithole)</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TAGU J</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 29 September, 1, 22, 25, 29 October, </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">19 November 2021 and 14 April 2022</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Civil Trial-Divorce</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">E Dzoro</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for plaintiff</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">S Katsuwa</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for defendant </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TAGU J:    The plaintiff and the defendant were married in terms of the then Marriage Act [<i>Chapter 37</i>] now [<i>Chapter 5:11</i>] on 19<sup>th</sup> December 1999 at Mutare. During the subsistence of the marriage they were blessed with two children namely Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye now a major born on the 28<sup>th</sup> September 2000 and X born on the 24<sup>th</sup> of March 2009 still a minor. During the subsistence of the marriage the parties also acquired various movable and immovable properties. The following are the movable properties:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Lexus LS460 ABT 3797,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Toyota ADP 6914,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 Maroon lounge suits (games room), 2 coffee tables,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Black lounge suite, 3 coffee tables,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dining room table, chairs and cabinet,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All kitchen utensils,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 Fridges, 2 deep freezers, microwave,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stove, two plate stove with oven, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">3 televisions</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Study desk and chair, computer, printer,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Guest bedroom bed and headboard, dressing table, coffee table stools,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Main bedroom bed, bedroom suite, blanket box, lounge furniture,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 x kids bedroom bed, headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2 x kids bedroom bathtubs,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maid’s bedroom bed and headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">White leather lounge suite, portable radio,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dish washing machine,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Clothes Washing machine and dryer,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Several curtains.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The following are the immovable properties acquired by the parties during the subsistence of the marriage:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue, Harare.   </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The marriage relationship between the parties has now broken down irretrievably. On the 24<sup>th</sup> January 2020 the Plaintiff issued summons for divorce. Both parties agreed that the marriage relationship has irretrievably broken down to an extent that there are no prospects of restoration of a normal marriage. They also agreed on how the above movable properties should be distributed between themselves.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In their joint pre-trial conference minute the parties agreed that a decree of divorce be granted. That the non-custodial parent shall have reasonable access to the Minor child Tendai Kyle Kanyekanye on weekends from Friday 1600hrs to Sunday 1400hrs, and during school terms on the first two (2) weeks of each school holiday and on alternative public holidays. They agreed that both parties shall contribute equally towards paying School fees and Educational Requirements for the minor child Tendai Kyle Kanyekanye until the minor child attains 18 years or becomes self –supporting whichever occurs first. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This court is therefore being called upon to determine the following ancillary issues,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Plaintiff should be awarded custody of the minor child X?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">How much maintenance should the non-custodial parent pay for upkeep of the minor child X?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Plaintiff should contribute towards the educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye who is abroad?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the postnuptial agreement entered into between the parties is binding?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Defendant should be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue, and 50% of Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the Defendant should be awarded the movable properties claimed by the Defendant?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Both parties filed closing submissions. The court in determining this case will take into account the closing submissions, the bundle of documents Exhibit “A” as well as the evidence led in court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">X is a boy child. As regards the first issue whether or not the Plaintiff should be awarded custody of the minor child X the Plaintiff in his examination in chief led evidence to the effect that the Defendant works in Shamva and is not available to monitor and supervise the minor child on a daily basis. He further led indisputable evidence that the minor child’s school performance is deteriorating and the school teacher had several complaints about it. This piece of evidence was confirmed by the defendant who stated that she tried to assist the child in the best possible manner under the circumstances including talking to him on a mobile phone to monitor his homework. Defendant even admitted that she left the minor child with the maid who signed the minor child’s homework diaries. She further admitted that she works in Shamwa. The witness called by the defendant Lovemore Tauzen also confirmed that Defendant is always away from Mondays to Fridays. In her testimony she admitted and corroborated the Plaintiff’s evidence that at one time she left the now major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye a girl child with the Plaintiff when she was 9 years old, and X was 1 year old while she was residing with her male boss and later took X to Mutare. Defendant generally put emphasis on her being awarded custody solely because she is the biological mother of the minor child. Defendant put importance on the fact that she gave birth to the child and the child needs motherly care and love. She did not advance evidence to show that the Plaintiff is not a suitable custodian.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In determining custody of a minor child the unequivocal principle that is applied is “the best interest of the minor child”. In <i>Denhere</i> v <i>Denhere </i>SC 51/17 custody of the minor child was awarded to the father as it was deemed to be in the best interest of the child. See also <i>Hackim</i> v <i>Hackim</i> 1988 (2) ZLR 61.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Admittedly, the Defendant is the biological mother of X. It is trite that that alone is not the determining factor, but the best interest of the child. In <i>Saqidi</i> v <i>Muteswa </i>HH -249-20 the learned Judge Zhou J had this to say-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The approach urged here recognizes that parental roles do not reside in the biological make up </span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">of a person. The anatomical constitution of a person as a man or woman is an act of biology, of nature, yet, the gender roles pertaining to the roles of mother and father in bringing up a child are social constructs which must be challenged in the light of the changing dynamics of our society.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, the Defendant works out of Harare while the Plaintiff works in Harare. The Defendant sought to mind the child’s affairs through the telephone and delegate the duties to a maid. The negative consequences of this <i>status quo</i> was shown in the Plaintiff’s evidence and confirmed by the Defendant as poor performance at school, general abandonment, lack of grooming from the teacher’s comments and the solitude of the minor child who is deprived of the daily love and affection due to him from the daily interaction with an available parent. Arguably, if Defendant were to be awarded custody, during the week days the minor child would be deprived of parental attention from either of the parties. The Defendant would be in Shamwa. Over the weekend when the Defendant is available the child will be with the Plaintiff most of the time and the child would not see his mother as the Plaintiff would be the one with access as per the parties’ agreement captured in the joint pre-trial conference minute. I foresee nothing wrong if the custody is awarded to the father. In <i>Tangirai</i> v <i>Tangirai </i>HC 30/2011 [ZWHHC65/2013] upon divorce the learned <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Guvava J</span> (as she then was) awarded custody of four-year minor children to their father as the mother was a cross border trader and was not always available. The learned judge had the following to say:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The problem that arises when she is away will in my view continue to present itself because the children are day scholars and will need to attend school on a daily basis.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The scenario would be the same in the present case as the minor child is a day scholar who is minded by a maid.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This brings me to the issue of how much maintenance should be paid by the non-custodial parent. The Plaintiff led evidence to the effect that if he is granted custody US$50.00 would be sufficient per month as he is in a position to supplement. On the other hand the Defendant led evidence that US$2000. 00 is what is required for a then 12-year old boy outside of school fees at the time she filed her plea. It is common cause that both parents have the responsibility of maintaining a minor child. It was agreed at pre-Trial Conference that both parties would meet the school fees and school requirements of the minor child equally. In the case of <i>Mubaiwa </i>v <i>Chigwanda</i> HC 1249/2012 (2015) ZWHHC246 <span style="font-variant:small-caps">U</span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-variant:small-caps">chena </span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-variant:small-caps">J</span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> (as he then was) stated that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“The issue of the responsible person’s means is an important consideration determining maintenance applications.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the prevailing economic hardships I am of the view that if the non-custodial parent pays US$50.00 and the custodial parent played his/her role and contributed the other US$50.00 to the minor child’s day to day upkeep totaling US$ 100.00 excluding school fees and school requirements would be very reasonable. A sum of US$2000.00 per month as maintenance for a minor child would be unreasonable. If the Defendant feels that US$2000.00 is reasonable, then as a parent who also have a responsibility to look after the minor child there would be nothing wrong if she is prepared to fork out an extra US$1900.00 and give it to the minor child per month. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:24.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As far as the parties’ contribution towards the educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye who is abroad is concerned, the law is very clear that both parties must contribute until the child completes her educational requirements. However, each part would be required to do so according to each part’s means. However, let me at this juncture state that while the Plaintiff is willing to contribute to Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye’s educational requirements, there has been a discord as to how she finds her way where she is. Plaintiff wanted Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye to go to a University in South Africa. Plaintiff further led evidence on how Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye was sent to Cyprus by the Defendant with neither his consent nor knowledge. He only got to know of her where about later from the maid. He said he lost contact with her and broke down while on the witness stand. Plaintiff further explained that he did not approve of the Cyprus University as it ranked very low, lower than the University of Zimbabwe. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff led evidence which was confirmed by the Defendant that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye subsequently left the Cyprus University and went to a university in Poland. The Plaintiff showed that the Vistula University that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye was now attending in Poland is still ranked lower than the University of Zimbabwe and even lower than the Cyprus University Natasha had initially enrolled in. Plaintiff showed further that the Defendant was now seeking an order for him to fund what he termed the irresponsible lifestyle of their daughter who was hopping from one University to another and from one country to another, more so to worse universities and repeating academic years. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was confirmed by both parties that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye is now an adult and Defendant did not lead any evidence on her <i>locus standi</i> to claim maintenance on behalf of a major. Plaintiff is of the view that outside of the irresponsible conduct of Defendant as a parent of taking Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye outside the country without his consent as the father, fund her escapades, and furthermore facilitating her going to low ranking universities, and the fact that Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye despite her being his daughter is mow a major who made her own and mother’s decision without her father’s knowledge and consent ought to put this matter to rest in favour of the Plaintiff. In the case of <i>Koumides</i> v <i>Koumides </i>HC 6886 ZWHHC114 (2010) <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Mavhangira J</span> (as she then was) held that the application by plaintiff (who was the mother of the child) for maintenance for a child who was a major at tertiary level was bad at law and it was dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the present case Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye had always studied in Zimbabwe being funded by both parents. The Defendant decided clandestinely to take her to Cyprus without informing Plaintiff. To now ask Plaintiff to fund international tuition when local Universities could have served a better purpose academically would be unjust. To ask Plaintiff to sponsor such delinquency would be supporting the deplorable conduct by Defendant which conduct she continued to exhibit even during trial. In any event, at Pre-trial Conference Defendant confirmed she was able to pay Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye’s university costs. Defendant set her bed so she must lie on it. In her initial plea the Defendant said she was prepared to pay Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye’s fees knowing fully well that she had made a unilateral decision to send the major child abroad without the knowledge and consent of the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This brings me to the issue of whether or not the post naptual agreement entered into between the parties is binding or not. The Plaintiff maintains that it is binding while the Defendant said it is not binding.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Section 7(5) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [Chapter 5.13] states: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“In granting a decree of divorce….an appropriate court may, <b>in accordance with a written agreement between the parties, </b>make an order<b> </b>with regard<b> </b>to the matters referred in paragraph (a) and (b) of subsection (1).” (My emphasis).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the present case there were divorce proceedings case number HC 6917/18 that the Plaintiff instituted and subsequently withdrew. Prior to institution of the said proceedings parties herein had entered into their own agreement on proprietary distribution and signed the agreement on pp 27-31 of the bundle of documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At trial of this current matter the Defendant sought to claim that the agreement was entered into when she was sleepy and she had to go to work the following day. The excuse used by the Defendant was an attempt to evade the agreement. This is absurd to say the least as I will demonstrate below. In essence the Defendant confirmed knowledge of the agreement in her testimony. In the same testimony she confirmed that she signed the agreement and endorsed on every page her initials. The Defendant did not lead any evidence to legally excuse herself from the agreement, “she just did not wish to be bound by it”.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All the facts and evidence led by both Plaintiff and Defendant confirmed that there was and is an existing and valid written agreement between the parties. The Defendant in her actions, pleadings and testimony was actually confirming the agreement. The Defendant was in agreement with every content of the agreement except the distribution of some of the immovable property which clearly she decided to change her mind on. The court noted that the distribution of the movable property in Plaintiff’s declaration was according to the terms of the agreement and the Defendant embraced it. The Defendant only added items that were omitted by the Plaintiff, which items she claimed in her initial Plea and her amended Plea. The parties proceeded to engage a lawyer and that was in accordance with her agreement on page 30 of the buddle of documents. Furthermore, in accordance with the agreement on the same page, the Defendant was actually given access to the Borrowdale property until November 2018. The only item that the Defendant is disputing is the distribution of the immovable property and it is clear that it was an afterthought. The Defendant did not allege any duress or undue influence upon signing the agreement other than saying she did so when she was sleepy.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The facts therefore, showed that there was acquiescence to the agreement and that proves the Defendant’s state of mind when she signed the agreement and a long while after signing it. Defendant did not dispute certain facts in her evidence and these are confirmed by documentation produced before the court. On p 53 of the bundle of documents the Defendant sent to the Plaintiff a message asking when they would see a lawyer, an act which acquiesced the agreement which expressly stated that they were to engage a lawyer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Let me hasten to say on p 51 of the bundle of documents the Defendant sent an Ecocash payment of US$250.00 to the Plaintiff after Plaintiff informed her that the deposit for the legal fees was US$500.00 and he did not have funds to pay her share. That payment of half of the deposit was acquiescence to the agreement and not evidence of a sleepy person. The Defendant attended the meeting with the lawyer Mr <i>Joshua Shekede</i> and stood by the agreement, which was confirmed by Mr <i>Joshua Shekede</i> in his testimony and that was acquiescence to the agreement. When the lawyer Mr <i>Joshua Shekede</i> formed a WhatsApp group pp 35 to 51 of the bundle of documents to facilitate discussions on the issues to be presented before the court, the Defendant actively participated. The Defendant only raised issues on matters that were not in the agreement and that is to my view clear acquiescence to the agreement. The Defendant went on to furnish the lawyer with the description of her property on p 39 of the bundle of documents and that also is acquiescence to the agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The law on acquiescence is a well beaten path home. If the parties conduct themselves in a manner that shows their approval and consent to an agreement and does not show their dispute, then they are said to have acquiesced to the agreement. In <i>Fleiner</i> v <i>Fleiner &amp; Anor</i> HH 261/18 spouses that had divorced had a subsequent agreement on how to handle a property that they jointly owned, which property upon divorce remained jointly owned. The parties through emails to each other varied the order of the court on occupation and rentals and each followed through with the new arrangements. When first Respondent attempted to disassociate himself from the new agreement the court held that the conduct of first Respondent which conformed to the terms of the agreement amounted to acquiescence and he was bound by the new agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Again in <i>Revesai</i> v <i>Windmill</i> HH -790-16[ZWHHC 2016/790] an applicant wrote an email relinquishing possession of his vehicle to his employee and in the application tried to walk it back. The court held that the applicant acquiesced to respondent possessing his vehicle. In <i>Hepner</i> v <i>Roodepoort-Maraisburg Town Council</i> 1962 (4) SA 771 (A) <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Steyn CJ </span>said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">There is authority for the view that in the case of waiver by conduct, the conduct must leave no reasonable doubt as to the intention of surrendering the right in question.”</span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, Defendant by her conduct showed her intention to surrender her right to defend Plaintiff’s divorce summons, particularly on proprietary distribution. To that extend the agreement entered between the parties is binding. See also <i>Laws</i> v <i>Rutherford</i> 1924 AD 261.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I will now deal with the most contentious issue whether or not the Defendant should be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue, Harare and 50% of Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Qunnington, Borrowdale Harare. Both parties in their evidence in chief, and the closing submissions dealt with the laws dealing with the division, apportionment or distribution of assets of the spouses upon the dissolution of the marriage. Section 7 (1) (4) (a) to (g) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [<i>Chapter 5.13</i>] outlines the factors the court should consider in the exercise of its discretion in order to achieve an equitable distribution of the matrimonial estate. See also <i>Hatendi</i> v <i>Hatendi</i> 2001 (2) ZLR 530; Ncube v Ncube 1993 (1) ZLR 39(S) at 40H-41 A, <i>Shenje</i> v <i>Shenje </i>2001 (2) ZLR 160 at 163F; <i>Dzova</i> v <i>Dzova</i> HC 753/08. The <i>locus classicus</i> case of <i>Takafuma </i>v <i>Takafuma</i> 1994 (2) ZLR 103(S) sets out the manner in which assets of the spouses are distributed. The assets are grouped in baskets of “his” and “hers” and “theirs”. It is the basket of theirs that is shared between the parties first, thereafter there has to be a reason guided by section 7 of the Matrimonial Causes Act for the court to take from his to hers or vise versa. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I will deal with Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale Harare first. The undisputed facts are that before the parties separated they were staying as husband and wife in a rented house in Vinona Harare. The Plaintiff was the one paying rentals. He noted that the rentals were high and he had to save some money in order to move out of a rented house. Plaintiff saw an advertisement of a vacant stand which was being sold by one Bernard Mahara Mutangi, being Stand 693 Quinnington Township, Borrowdale Harare. Plaintiff was interested in the Stand and started purchasing it on or around 2008. He then finished purchasing the said Stand on the 23<sup>rd</sup> of August 2017. It is not in dispute that the Defendant contributed nothing to the purchase of the vacant Stand. In or around 2008 the Plaintiff put up a shell on the vacant Stand and the parties started staying in the shell or a skeleton structure with two rooms and no roof. Plaintiff led evidence to the effect that he put some iron sheets so that rain would not come in and some of the rooms did not have windows. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff further led evidence to the effect that in September 2010 the Defendant left the Stand because she could not accept to stay any longer in a shell or skeleton structure that he had put up. It was his further evidence that late 2008 or early 2009 he started some improvements on the stand and Defendant did not contribute anything. He said at the time the Defendant left the stand about 5% of improvements had been put up. He testified to the effect that the Defendant only came back to the stand in April 2013 after the Plaintiff had completed building on the stand in Borrowdale Harare. He said four days after visiting the stand in 2013 the Defendant gave him a card on the Valentine’s Day to say she had forgiven him for what she had done. The card was produced in court as an exhibit and the photographs of her standing inside and outside the house he had built were produced by consent.  Four weeks later the Defendant moved back into the house on the Borrowdale Stand from where she had been staying with her employer and later from No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue Harare which she had bought on her own while they were on separation. They then reconciled for a while but the Defendant finally moved out of the Borrowdale house and suggested that they formalize their divorce. It is important to note that the Plaintiff led evidence, produced receipts of the materials he bought for the construction of the Borrowdale house. According to his evidence the Defendant left the Stand when only 5% of the improvements had been done on the stand. The Plaintiff said the Defendant did not contribute anything at all to the construction of the house at number 693 Quinnington Township Borrowdale, because Defendant was not interested at all. In short he said the Defendant contributed nothing hence is not entitled to the 50% or any other percentage she is now claiming. It was his further evidence that when they were on separation from 2010 to 2013 each of them was dealing with each’s finances as they pleased. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:30.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In her evidence in chief the Defendant said they acquired the Borrowdale stand when they were still staying together as husband and wife. According to her evidence the Borrowdale stand was just a vacant ground. She admitted that she did not contribute anything to the purchase of the Borrowdale stand but said she had to make sure there was food on the table and she was paying the maid. As regards the construction of the Borrowdale house it was her evidence that in or about 2007 they went to China to buy items like suits which she was selling and contributed financially. She said she was claiming 50% share of the Borrowdale House.  During cross examination she was asked as to what she did by way of contributions to the construction of the house and she maintained that she contributed by selling suits. Asked as to how much she contributed her response was she could not tell. The following exchange further took place between her and the Plaintiff’s counsel:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced a single receipt?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not produce any because I did not think it would be required.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- How did you receive your salary?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It goes straight into my account.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced a single RTGS you made to Plaintiff?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not produce any.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced your bank statement showing payments to Plaintiff?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Have you produced even a single withdrawal slip from your account that tallies with any payment to Plaintiff?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I did not </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Confirm Plaintiff did greater part of the construction?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I confirm</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Confirm in your 1<sup>st</sup> plea you were claiming 30%?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">My lawyer said so.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- Confirm you now ask for 50% of the Borrowdale property?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Yes.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Q- And you want to retain 100% of 23 Kimmich Heights?</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Correct.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant confirmed that the title Deeds to the stand are in the names of the Plaintiff but argued that the mere fact that the agreement of sale and the title deed is in the name of the Plaintiff is not a bar to transfer being effected to her.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I now deal with the issue whether or not the Defendant should be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue Harare as her sole and exclusive share. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The evidence led by the Plaintiff in respect of No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue is straight forward. It was his evidence that he came to know of this property in 2013 after they briefly reconciled and when Mr. Joshua Shekede asked them to disclose the properties they had at a time the initial agreement on how the distribution of the property was to be done upon divorce was drafted. He submitted that before separation the Defendant must have been saving her money since she managed to deposit for this stand in a space of one and half months. According to him the Defendant used to use her money as she pleased and did not tell him about the purchase of the stand in issue. He said he later leant that the Defendant entered into a 10-year mortgage bond secretly in respect of the stand. He produced the agreement of sale entered into between the Defendant and one Shillah Tatenda Machiri which is on p 120 of the bundle of documents and her Title Deed which is on page 15 respectively. So according to him he owned the Borrowdale property while the Defendant owned the property at No 18 Fife Avenue, Harare. So, the Defendant bought this property using her own means. Asked if he is not willing to share the said property the Plaintiff categorically refused and said each party must take is own property. In short, he is prepared to let the Defendant be awarded No. 23 Kimmich Heights, 18 Fife Avenue as her exclusive share despite that he used to visit this property here and there.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the other hand the Defendant led evidence to the effect that she acquired the property at No. 23 Kimmich Heights personally when the Plaintiff chased her from the Borrowdale house. She confirmed the agreement of sale, the Title Deed and the fact that she personally paid the mortgage bond in respect of the said property. She maintained that she wants to retain 100% share of No. 23 Kimmich Heights and 50% of the Borrowdale house because she played a party in its construction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">What the evidence has shown is that two professionals succeeded in their careers but failed in their marriage. Both agreed that the marriage has irretrievably broken down. That each part had separate estate which they handled as they pleased at the exclusion of other. The evidence has further shown that it is in the best interest of the minor child Tendai Kyle Kanyekanye if custody is awarded to the Plaintiff and Defendant pays maintenance. The court further noted that it would not be fair for the Plaintiff to be ordered to pay for the educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye who is abroad. As to the distribution of the immovable properties, each must maintain their separate properties. In distributing the matrimonial properties the court relied heavily on the formula in the case of <i>Takafuma</i> v <i>Takafuma </i>supra, and the provisions of s 7 of the Matrimonial Causes Act. Having noted that each party acquired the immovable properties separately from the other, and only about 5% of improvements had been made on the Borrowdale property before parties separated, the court found it unjust to take from “his” and give to “hers” and <i>vice versa</i> in terms of s 7 of the Matrimonial Causes Act. If at all the Defendant had contributed on the 5% improvement, (which is doubtful) she benefited in acquiring the property at No. 23 Kimmich Heights. As to the sharing of movable properties the parties had agreed as to how the properties be shared. The Plaintiff had awarded most of the items to the Defendant in his declaration and the Defendant other than adding extra items that had been left out by the Plaintiff, is in agreement with the manner of distribution. In fact, the Defendant acquired the lion’s share of the movable properties as compared to what the Plaintiff acquired. In the result-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A decree of divorce be and is hereby granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff be and is hereby awarded custody of X born on the 24<sup>th</sup> March 2009, and that Defendant be and is hereby awarded reasonable access to the said child from Friday 1600hrs to Sunday 1400hrs, and during school terms on the first two (2) weeks of each school holiday and on alternative public Holidays and both parties shall contribute equally towards paying school fees and educational requirements for the minor child until the child attains 18 years or is self-supporting whichever occurs first.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant is hereby ordered to pay maintenance of X to the tune of US$50.00 per month until the child attains the age of 18 years or is self- supporting whichever occurs first.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant be and is hereby ordered to continue paying educational requirements and maintenance of the major child Natasha Shingai Kanyekanye born on the 28<sup>th</sup> September 2000 who is abroad as she had been doing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff is awarded the following movable assets as per the parties’ agreement-</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maroon lounge suit, coffee table,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Black lounge suit coffee table,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Fridge, deep freezer, microwave,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maroon lounge suit (games room), television</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Study desk, chair, Computer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant is awarded the following movable assets-</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Lexus LS460 ABT 3797,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Toyota ADP 6914,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dining room table, chairs and cabinet,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Fridge, deep freezer, microwave,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Study computer, coffee table, printer,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Guest bedroom bed and headboard, dressing table, coffee table stools,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Main bedroom bed, bedroom suit, blanket box, lounge furniture, television,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2x kids bedroom bed, headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2x kids bedroom bathtubs,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Maid’s bedroom bed and headboard,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">White leather lounge suite, portable radio and 2x coffee tables,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All kitchen utensils,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dish washing machine, clothes washing machine and dryer, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Two plate stove with oven;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Some curtains.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol start="7"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Plaintiff be and is hereby awarded 100% share of Stand 693 Quinnington Township of Lot 13 EA Quinnington, Borrowdale, Harare as his exclusive property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Defendant be and is hereby awarded number 23 Kimmich Heights as her sole and exclusive property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Each party to bear its own costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dzoro &amp; Partners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, plaintiff’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">J Mambara &amp; Partners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, defendant’s legal practitioners       </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">     </span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Tue, 26 Apr 2022 10:22:31 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12402 at http://zimlii.org Bennet v Bennet and 4 Others (6 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 6 (12 January 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/6 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Bennet v Bennet and 4 Others (6 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 6 (12 January 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1604" hreflang="en">Res Judicata</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2195" hreflang="x-default">divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1866" hreflang="en">Matrimonial Property Law</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2146" hreflang="x-default">SPOLIATION</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2269" hreflang="x-default">Urgent Application</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2271" hreflang="x-default">what constitutes urgency (Urgent application)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2272" hreflang="x-default">when may be made (Urgent application)</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/18/2022 - 13:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/6/2022-zwhhc-6.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=34648">2022-zwhhc-6.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/6/2022-zwhhc-6.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=561467">2022-zwhhc-6.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 06-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 6530/21</span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DEBORAH SUSAN BENNETT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">RODNEY ALLEN BENNETT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE ZIMBABWE REPUBLIC POLICE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE OFFICER IN CHARGE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BORROWDALE POLICE STATION</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE MESSENGER OF COURT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(HARARE CIVIL MAGISTRATES COURT)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE CLERK OF COURT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(HARARE CIVIL MAGISTRATES COURT)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 22 November 2021 &amp; 12 January 2022</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENT CHAMBER APPLICATION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate E Mubaiwa, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate G.R.J.Sithole, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for 1<sup>st</sup> respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr R.T. Nyatoti, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> respondents</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> respondents</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J:  On 24 November 2021, a spoliation order in favour of the applicant was issued. On 26 November 2021, a request for reasons for the judgment was made for the purpose of an appeal under SC456/21. These are they:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 17 November 2021 applicant approached this court on an urgent basis seeking among other things, a spoliation order against the first respondent.  She wanted immediate restoration of her exclusive occupation of 12 Beach Road, Borrowdale, Harare.  Applicant stated that she is married to first respondent but they are in the midst of a divorce, case number HC 5353/21.  The first respondent is alleged to have left the matrimonial home around December 2020 and that his personal belongings and items were surrendered to him.  According to applicant, the house in question is not part of the matrimonial estate as she got it as part of a divorce settlement in a previous relationship.  Applicant stated that first respondent’s first attempt to return to the matrimonial house was in September 2021 when he approached the Domestic Violence Court.  He sought for a protection order on the basis that applicant had been abusive to him and denied him access to the house, among other things. The magistrate wondered why the then applicant (first respondent herein) would want to be despoiled back into the home where he was being abused. The application was dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 16 November 2021, applicant was served with a spoliation order granted <i>ex parte</i> by the magistrates’ court.  The order directed that Applicant should give first respondent access to the house within 24 hours.  It also directed the police to arrest her if she fails to comply with the order.  Applicant noted an appeal against the <i>ex parte </i>order on the same day but served the first and third respondents the following day.  Applicant alleged that there were threats to arrest her even after she noted an appeal.  She further alleged that on 17 November 2021 first respondent broke into her premises and forcibly took occupation of the house.  According to her, he was not assisted by either the police as directed in the spoliation order or the messenger of court, but came with a locksmith who assisted him.  Applicant said first respondent threatened to shoot her if she resisted and also threatened Nicole Anne Le Grange and Liam Fallon, tenants at the cottage on the premises. Applicant and the tenants fled to safety</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant stated that her appeal had the effect of negating execution of the order except where leave to execute pending appeal is obtained.  She pointed out that her appeal has merit on four grounds.  The first is that the issue of access to the house is <i>res judicata</i> by virtue of dismissal of the application for a protection order in the Domestic Violence court.  The second is that the spoliation order is grossly irregular as it was issued in proceedings that effectively reviewed an earlier determination.  Thirdly, since a spoliation order is final in nature, it was improper for it to be granted<i> ex parte.  </i>Finally, a finding that first respondent had been in peaceful and undisturbed possession of the house entitling him to spoliation could not properly be made in the light of his own testimony that he had not lived at the house since December 2020.   Applicant also prayed for the urgent set down of the appeal she had noted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The tenants deposed to supporting affidavits confirming that first respondent had not been at the premises since December 2020 and that police officers had been coming to the premises demanding to see applicant.   They also confirmed that first respondent had come to the premises in the afternoon of 17 November 2021 with a locksmith and forced his way in.  They also confirmed the threat of shooting and that they fled from the premises.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Nyatoti</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> indicated that second and third respondents would abide by the decision of the court. The application was opposed by the first respondent.  He raised the following points <i>in limine: </i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The certificate of urgency is invalid,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The matter is not urgent, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> There was no spoliation,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The relief sought is incompetent, and </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is based on falsehoods and misleading information.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the merits, first respondent confirmed the marriage and the pending divorce.  He however disputed that his personal belongings were surrendered to him and alleges acts of spoliation against him.  He also disputed that the house in question is not part of the matrimonial estate.  He averred that the spoliation order was competently granted and remains extant and that by the time the applicant noted her appeal the fourth respondent had already executed or enforced the interim order granted by the magistrates court.  He denied breaking into the premises, forcibly taking occupation of the house and threatening to shoot applicant.   He insisted that fourth respondent restored his right of occupation and access to the premises in execution of the magistrates’ court order prior to applicant having entered her appeal. First respondent alleged that applicant and her tenant voluntarily left the matrimonial home without surrendering the keys to the house.  He urged the court not to deal with the merits of the applicant’s appeal as it was not the proper forum for that. First respondent stated that whatever challenges the applicant was having with the police were matters whose administrative control he did not possess.  According to first respondent, there is no valid cause of action for a spoliation order whether on a <i>prima facie</i> case or balance of probabilities, therefore the matter cannot by any stretch of the imagination be urgent.  He pointed out that whether or not applicant should be given exclusive occupation of the matrimonial home is <i>lis pendens</i> in the divorce proceedings, in the appeal against the spoliation order and on the return date in the magistrates’ court.  Further that it is <i>res judicata</i> until the appeal court sets aside the <i>ex parte</i> order granted by the magistrate. First respondent urged the court not to grant the relief sought.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">POINTS IN LIMINE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Sithole</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> persisted with the points <i>in limine.</i>  On the first point he argued that the deponent to the certificate of urgency had not applied her mind to the facts of the matter.  He referred to the case of <i>Chidawu &amp; Ors </i>v<i> Shah &amp; Ors</i><b> </b>SC 12/13 in which it was stated that<b>; -</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">In certifying the matter as urgent, the legal practitioner is required to apply his or her own mind to the circumstances of the case and reach an independent judgment as to the urgency of the matter. He or she is not supposed to take verbatim what his or her client says regarding perceived urgency and put it in the certificate of urgency.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He argued that as enforcement had been done by the messenger of court and that the return of service is proof of that, the deponent ought to have concluded that there was no spoliation and therefore no urgency.  He also argued that first respondent‘s restoration of occupation and access to the matrimonial home had been done by a lawful process carried out by the fourth respondent as stated in para 1.7 of the founding affidavit.  <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> stated in response that the correct authority had been cited but a wrong point made.  He argued that in the certificate of urgency <i>in casu,</i> the legal practitioner had considered the timeliness of the action taken, what would happen if the court does not intervene as well as the applicable law.  He pointed out that the messenger of court’s return of service arose from the first respondent’s papers and therefore could not have been considered at the time the certificate of urgency was prepared.  He also pointed out that the certificate of urgency is not there to argue the merits of the matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> I found favour with the submissions made on behalf of the applicant.  The <i>ex parte</i> application was not one of the documents considered by the deponent to the certificate of urgency.  The messenger of court’s return of service was in the <i>ex parte</i> application.  The certifying legal practitioner cannot be faulted for not considering documents that were not before her.  In addition, para 1.7 of the founding affidavit does not refer to restoration of occupation as alleged but to service of the order which gave applicant 24 hours to comply.  On that basis I found no merit in the first point <i>in limine.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the second point <i>in limine,</i> <i>Advocate Sithole</i> submitted that the matter was not urgent as restoration of occupation was lawfully done by the messenger of court.  He further submitted that the order was executed before the entry of the notice of appeal.  He submitted that there is a dispute of fact as to the time of execution of the order vis-à-vis noting of the appeal and that the dispute can only be resolved by calling the Deputy Messenger of Court.  On the third point <i>in limine,</i> <i>Advocate Sithole</i> argued that in the face of the existence of the return of service from the messenger of court there was no spoliation.  On the fourth point <i>in limine,</i> it was submitted for the first respondent that the relief sought is incompetent as the matter is <i>res judicata. Advocate Sithole </i>submitted that the magistrates court had already determined the issue of exclusive restoration sought by the applicant and that the present application is a disguised appeal.   On the last point <i>in limine</i>, <i>Advocate Sithole</i> pointed out that it is a lie that applicant was despoiled as restoration was effected by the messenger of court.  He referred to the case of <i>Leader Tread Zimbabwe </i>v<b> </b><i>T.M.Smith</i><b> </b>HH 131/03 in which it is stated that if a litigant lies or tells a lie on a material aspect of evidence, she is taken to have lied in everything.  On the basis of that case, <i>Advocate Sithole </i>submitted that once there is a lie about what happened on 17 November 2012 the court should disregard everything Applicant submitted and dismiss the application.  He further submitted that applicant stated that she was in peaceful and undisturbed occupation yet in separate proceedings there is an indication that a tenant leases the whole premises.  He submitted also that the inconsistency in evidence entitles the court to conclude that she is lying and that as the credibility of the applicant is in question the application should be struck off with costs on a punitive scale.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> referred to the case of <i>Mushore </i>v<i> Mbanga &amp; Ors</i> HH 381/16 in response to the issue of the alleged lack of urgency.   He pointed out that what constitutes urgency as established in the <i>Mushore </i>v<i> Mbanga &amp; Ors</i> case (supra) is how swiftly one acts and what consequences would befall the litigant who does not approach the court swiftly.  He argued that the submissions on behalf of the first respondent are on the merits of the matter.  He pointed out that the issue of timely action was not addressed.  He also pointed out that the question of harm is considered whether at the time applicant acted she had a basis for fearing harm.  Also, that applicant had established spoliation and that she had been rendered homeless.  <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> disputed that there are material disputes of facts that cannot be resolved on the papers.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif">            In the case of </span></span></span><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Kuvarega </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v<i> Registrar –General &amp; Anor</i></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif"> 1998 (1) ZLR 188 (H) what constitutes urgency is defined in the following terms:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“What constitutes urgency is not only the imminent arrival of the day of reckoning; a matter is urgent, if at the time the need to act arises, the matter cannot wait.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif"><span style="font-variant:small-caps">makarau j</span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif"> (</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">as she then was) in <i>Document Support Centre (Pvt) Ltd</i> v<i> T.F Mapuvire</i><b> </b>HH 117-2006 expressed the view that urgent applications are those where if the courts fail to act, the applicants may well be within their rights to dismissively suggest to the court that it should not bother to act subsequently as the position would have become irreversible and irreversibly so to the prejudice of the applicant.   I was satisfied that applicant’s case met the requirements for urgency and therefore found no merit in the second point<i> in limine.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> submitted that the final three points<i> in limine</i> go to the merits of the matter. He submitted that when the appeal was noted, the right to execute was lost in accordance with s 40 (3) of the magistrates court Act [<i>Chapter 7:10</i>], even if aided by the messenger of court. He pointed out that first respondent did not state the time execution was effected and did not dispute that he went to the premises in the afternoon as stated in para 2.4 of the founding affidavit. Since the returns of service show that first respondent and the messenger of court were served with the notices of appeal in the morning of the same day,<i> Advocate Mubaiwa</i> argued that there is no dispute of fact as by the time first respondent took occupation of the premises he was barred in terms of s 40 (3) of the magistrates court Act.  He concluded that applicant had successfully proven that she had been unlawfully despoiled. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> disputed that the relief sought is incompetent and averred that the defence of <i>res judicata</i> applied.  He pointed out that the issue before the court does not affect the order by the magistrate but is about reversing resort to self-help.  He further pointed out that in any event the order of the magistrate was invalid in that it has a return date and yet it is final in effect and the order sought is identical to what was granted in the interim.  On the issue of falsehoods <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> indicated that the affidavit relied on for that averment was not filed and is therefore not part of a court record. He referred to the case of<b> </b><i>Bozimo Trade &amp; Development Company (Pvt) Ltd </i>v<i> First Merchant Bank of Zimbabwe &amp; Others </i>2000 (1) ZLR 1 (H) for the submission that a litigant who misleads the court in some respect is not non-suited by reason of falsehood but is penalized by an order of costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I agreed with <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> that the points in limine are related to the merits of the matter.  The issue of the return of service in the <i>ex parte</i> application is central.  The answer to questions whether or not there is urgency and whether or not there was spoliation comes from examining the return of service and establishing what happened first, execution of the <i>ex parte</i> order or service of the notice of appeal.  I found no merit in the points <i>in limine</i> and dismissed them all.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUBMISSIONS BY THE PARTIES</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">stated that the requirements for spoliation set out in <i>Chisveto </i>v<i> Minister of Local Government &amp; Town Planning </i>1984 (1) ZLR 248 are satisfied in the founding affidavit. The requirements are that applicant should allege and establish that she was in peaceful and undisturbed possession of the premises.  She must also allege and establish that respondent took that possession from her unlawfully or otherwise without her consent.  He pointed out that the ruling in the Domestic Violence Court indicates that first respondent had prayed that he be allowed access or to return to the house and that that prayer would not have been made if he had been in occupation.  Further that the fact that the application seeking access had been made confirmed that possession was with applicant.  He stated that the occupation was undisturbed that is why first respondent had to approach the court for permission to return.  In any event first respondent had admitted that he had been away from the premises since December 2020 and that fact is in the magistrate’s ruling on page 17 of the record.  It was submitted for applicant that on the authority of <i>Mining Industry Pension Fund </i>v<i> Dab Marketing (Pvt) Ltd</i> SC 25/12 the admission by the first respondent transformed into a factual finding.  The first requirement for spoliation was therefore established.  On the second requirement, <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> submitted that the issue turns around the return of service and s 40 (3) of the magistrates court Act [<i>Chapter 7:10</i>].   He pointed out that applicant stated in her founding affidavit that first respondent came to despoil her in the afternoon and yet the issue of time is not engaged in the opposing affidavit.  Further that even the return of service by the fourth respondent does not indicate what time execution was done.  He submitted that in light of the fact that the notice of appeal had been served on the fourth respondent at 0913hours and on first respondent’s legal practitioners at 1100hours, it follows that the execution carried out in the afternoon was not in terms of the law and it amounted to spoliation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> also submitted that applicant prayed for her appeal to be heard on an urgent basis.  He placed reliance on the case of <i>Zimbabwe Development Party </i>v<i> Minister of Justice</i><b> </b><i>and Others </i>CCZ 11/17 for the position that in appropriate cases an order can be given for the urgent hearing of an appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, <i>Advocate Sithole</i> stated that it is competent to seek the urgent set down of an appeal or review.  He however had reservations on the practicality of the order sought in relation to enforcement considering administrative processes that are necessary before an appeal is heard. He pointed out, among other things, that the order sought is silent on the issue of the invitation to the parties to inspect the record and there is no provision for the filing of heads of argument.  On the issue of spoliation, <i>Advocate Sithole</i> submitted that there is an extant order granted by the magistrates court and enforcement of an order through the messenger of court does not amount to unlawful conduct or spoliatory conduct.  He pointed out that there are two extant orders which recognize and afford both parties rights to access and occupation of the premises.  He further pointed out that in the face of the regular return of service by the messenger of court, there cannot be any act of spoliation.  According to him, first respondent had occupation restored to him before the appeal was noted.  He urged the court to utilize Rule 60 (8) and call the messenger of court for <i>viva voce</i> evidence on the time execution was effected.  He persisted that there was no spoliation and that applicant voluntarily left the premises.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE DECISION MADE AND REASONS THEREOF</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The spoliation order was granted with amendments to the draft order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Paragraphs 1-4, 9 and 10 of the draft order were granted with amendments.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Paragraphs 5-8 of the draft order are not granted</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is common cause that first respondent was, as from December 2020, not residing at the matrimonial premises. On 23 September 2021 he applied for a protection order   in terms of the Domestic Violence Act [<i>Chapter 5:16</i>] alleging abuse, displacement and neglect.  The application was dismissed.  The ruling dismissing the application is stamped 7 November 2021. On 15 November 2021, first respondent obtained a spoliation order <i>ex parte </i>with 2 December 2021 as the return date.  The order was for restoration of access and occupation within 24 hours of service upon Applicant.  On 16 November 2021 applicant appealed against the <i>ex parte</i> spoliation order. The notice of appeal was served on 17 November 2021 the messenger of court at 0913 hours and on first respondent’s Legal Practitioners at 1100 hours.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant alleged that respondent resorted to self-help and broke into the premises in the afternoon of 17 November 2021.  She alleged that he was not assisted either by the police or the messenger of court.  She further alleged that this was illegal as she had noted an appeal and the spoliation order could not be executed without the leave of the court pending the appeal. First respondent alleged that the court order was executed by the messenger of court and the applicant and her tenant voluntarily left the house.  The return of service by the messenger of court is attached to the opposing affidavit. First respondent argued that a lawful process was followed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court noted that applicant’s founding affidavit and the supporting affidavit of Nicole Anne Le Grange specifically stated that first respondent came in the afternoon of 17 November 2021.  First respondent did not proffer the time he alleges he was assisted by the messenger of court.  The return of service from the messenger of court does not indicate the time execution was done. The locksmith who allegedly accompanied the first respondent and the messenger of court did not depose to an affidavit confirming the time he accompanied them to the premises.  It is trite that what is not disputed is taken as admitted.  With the issue of the time first respondent went to the premises on 17 November 2021 not having been put in issue on the papers, there was no dispute of fact to talk about.  I am not persuaded that the circumstances of this case warrant the resort to Rule 60 (8) of the High Court Rules 2021.  The rule is not meant to supplement shortcomings in a litigant’s pleadings. Clearly in this case it was within first respondent’s means to supply the crucial information on the time the spoliation order was executed at the time of filing his notice of opposition.  On a balance of probabilities, first respondent and whoever accompanied, he went to the premises in the afternoon, meaning that he had already been served with the notice of appeal. It follows that he ought to have sought leave to execute pending appeal. His occupation of the premises was therefore in violation of the law.   First respondent stated that applicant was there and voluntarily left the premises with her tenant.  He therefore confirmed that applicant was in occupation of the premises when he went there pursuant to the spoliation order. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I find that applicant has satisfied the requirements for a spoliation order in her favour.  I am not inclined to grant the request for an order for the urgent set down of the appeal.  I find the case of <i>Zimbabwe Development Party </i>v<i> Minister of Justice &amp; Others</i><b> </b>(supra) distinguishable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant was a political party registered in terms of the laws of Zimbabwe which sought to participate in the 2013 harmonised elections.  The Constitutional Court had, in <i>Mawarire </i>v<i> Mugabe N.O. and Others</i> CCZ 1/13, held that elections must be held before 31 July 2013.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The judgment was delivered on 31 May 2013.  On 6 June 2013 the applicant filed a constitutional application in the Constitutional Court under case no. CCZ 25/13.  In that application, the applicant claimed that it was not receiving funding in terms of s 67(4) of the Constitution of Zimbabwe (“the Constitution”) and that it required the same, as provided for in terms of s 155(2)(c) of the Constitution.  After filing that application, the applicant filed an urgent chamber application for the urgent set down of the cause in CCZ 25/13.  The applicant’s case was that should the case not be heard before the President declared elections, the other political parties would have an unfair advantage in the polls.  The case was about whether or not the cause under CCZ 25/13 would be defeated if it was not heard on an urgent basis.  The reasons for the grant of the order sought was that pursuant to that judgment, the President was due to announce election dates any time.  Once the polls were done, the applicant would have no other remedy.  The late CHIEF JUSTICE CHIDYAUSIKU was of the view that the set down of the cause under CCZ 25/13 ought to be treated as a matter of urgency because should the cause under CCZ 25/13 not be heard as a matter of urgency, the applicant would have no other remedy available to it, as the dates of the elections may be announced and other parties would get into full campaign swing, which, not surprisingly, needs funding of some sort in one way or the other.  Worse still, the elections would be held and the applicant would not have been allowed the best possible chance to fight for the various political offices it wanted to run for.  <i>In casu</i>, applicant has not established any impending event that would warrant a conclusion that she would have no other remedy.  Rule 95 (20) provides for a process for the urgent set down of an appeal.  The process is activated by the Judge President or a Senior Judge.  Sufficient administrative processes are available for applicant to follow to ensure the urgent hearing of her appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The prayer for costs on an attorney-client scale was not motivated. Costs on an ordinary scale were therefore granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Matizanadzo &amp; Warhurst, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Magaya &amp; Mandizvidza, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1<sup>st</sup> respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Civil Division of the Attorney-General’s Office, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2<sup>nd</sup> &amp; 3<sup>rd</sup> respondents’ legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-8f47d020b941d21639e094a64b1e62240e5fe55864eb5e97294fa8f0cb04391a"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 06-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 6530/21</span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DEBORAH SUSAN BENNETT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">RODNEY ALLEN BENNETT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE ZIMBABWE REPUBLIC POLICE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE OFFICER IN CHARGE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BORROWDALE POLICE STATION</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE MESSENGER OF COURT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(HARARE CIVIL MAGISTRATES COURT)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE CLERK OF COURT</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(HARARE CIVIL MAGISTRATES COURT)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 22 November 2021 &amp; 12 January 2022</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENT CHAMBER APPLICATION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate E Mubaiwa, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate G.R.J.Sithole, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for 1<sup>st</sup> respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr R.T. Nyatoti, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> respondents</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> respondents</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J:  On 24 November 2021, a spoliation order in favour of the applicant was issued. On 26 November 2021, a request for reasons for the judgment was made for the purpose of an appeal under SC456/21. These are they:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 17 November 2021 applicant approached this court on an urgent basis seeking among other things, a spoliation order against the first respondent.  She wanted immediate restoration of her exclusive occupation of 12 Beach Road, Borrowdale, Harare.  Applicant stated that she is married to first respondent but they are in the midst of a divorce, case number HC 5353/21.  The first respondent is alleged to have left the matrimonial home around December 2020 and that his personal belongings and items were surrendered to him.  According to applicant, the house in question is not part of the matrimonial estate as she got it as part of a divorce settlement in a previous relationship.  Applicant stated that first respondent’s first attempt to return to the matrimonial house was in September 2021 when he approached the Domestic Violence Court.  He sought for a protection order on the basis that applicant had been abusive to him and denied him access to the house, among other things. The magistrate wondered why the then applicant (first respondent herein) would want to be despoiled back into the home where he was being abused. The application was dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 16 November 2021, applicant was served with a spoliation order granted <i>ex parte</i> by the magistrates’ court.  The order directed that Applicant should give first respondent access to the house within 24 hours.  It also directed the police to arrest her if she fails to comply with the order.  Applicant noted an appeal against the <i>ex parte </i>order on the same day but served the first and third respondents the following day.  Applicant alleged that there were threats to arrest her even after she noted an appeal.  She further alleged that on 17 November 2021 first respondent broke into her premises and forcibly took occupation of the house.  According to her, he was not assisted by either the police as directed in the spoliation order or the messenger of court, but came with a locksmith who assisted him.  Applicant said first respondent threatened to shoot her if she resisted and also threatened Nicole Anne Le Grange and Liam Fallon, tenants at the cottage on the premises. Applicant and the tenants fled to safety</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant stated that her appeal had the effect of negating execution of the order except where leave to execute pending appeal is obtained.  She pointed out that her appeal has merit on four grounds.  The first is that the issue of access to the house is <i>res judicata</i> by virtue of dismissal of the application for a protection order in the Domestic Violence court.  The second is that the spoliation order is grossly irregular as it was issued in proceedings that effectively reviewed an earlier determination.  Thirdly, since a spoliation order is final in nature, it was improper for it to be granted<i> ex parte.  </i>Finally, a finding that first respondent had been in peaceful and undisturbed possession of the house entitling him to spoliation could not properly be made in the light of his own testimony that he had not lived at the house since December 2020.   Applicant also prayed for the urgent set down of the appeal she had noted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The tenants deposed to supporting affidavits confirming that first respondent had not been at the premises since December 2020 and that police officers had been coming to the premises demanding to see applicant.   They also confirmed that first respondent had come to the premises in the afternoon of 17 November 2021 with a locksmith and forced his way in.  They also confirmed the threat of shooting and that they fled from the premises.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Nyatoti</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> indicated that second and third respondents would abide by the decision of the court. The application was opposed by the first respondent.  He raised the following points <i>in limine: </i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The certificate of urgency is invalid,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The matter is not urgent, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> There was no spoliation,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The relief sought is incompetent, and </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is based on falsehoods and misleading information.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the merits, first respondent confirmed the marriage and the pending divorce.  He however disputed that his personal belongings were surrendered to him and alleges acts of spoliation against him.  He also disputed that the house in question is not part of the matrimonial estate.  He averred that the spoliation order was competently granted and remains extant and that by the time the applicant noted her appeal the fourth respondent had already executed or enforced the interim order granted by the magistrates court.  He denied breaking into the premises, forcibly taking occupation of the house and threatening to shoot applicant.   He insisted that fourth respondent restored his right of occupation and access to the premises in execution of the magistrates’ court order prior to applicant having entered her appeal. First respondent alleged that applicant and her tenant voluntarily left the matrimonial home without surrendering the keys to the house.  He urged the court not to deal with the merits of the applicant’s appeal as it was not the proper forum for that. First respondent stated that whatever challenges the applicant was having with the police were matters whose administrative control he did not possess.  According to first respondent, there is no valid cause of action for a spoliation order whether on a <i>prima facie</i> case or balance of probabilities, therefore the matter cannot by any stretch of the imagination be urgent.  He pointed out that whether or not applicant should be given exclusive occupation of the matrimonial home is <i>lis pendens</i> in the divorce proceedings, in the appeal against the spoliation order and on the return date in the magistrates’ court.  Further that it is <i>res judicata</i> until the appeal court sets aside the <i>ex parte</i> order granted by the magistrate. First respondent urged the court not to grant the relief sought.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">POINTS IN LIMINE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Sithole</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> persisted with the points <i>in limine.</i>  On the first point he argued that the deponent to the certificate of urgency had not applied her mind to the facts of the matter.  He referred to the case of <i>Chidawu &amp; Ors </i>v<i> Shah &amp; Ors</i><b> </b>SC 12/13 in which it was stated that<b>; -</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">In certifying the matter as urgent, the legal practitioner is required to apply his or her own mind to the circumstances of the case and reach an independent judgment as to the urgency of the matter. He or she is not supposed to take verbatim what his or her client says regarding perceived urgency and put it in the certificate of urgency.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He argued that as enforcement had been done by the messenger of court and that the return of service is proof of that, the deponent ought to have concluded that there was no spoliation and therefore no urgency.  He also argued that first respondent‘s restoration of occupation and access to the matrimonial home had been done by a lawful process carried out by the fourth respondent as stated in para 1.7 of the founding affidavit.  <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> stated in response that the correct authority had been cited but a wrong point made.  He argued that in the certificate of urgency <i>in casu,</i> the legal practitioner had considered the timeliness of the action taken, what would happen if the court does not intervene as well as the applicable law.  He pointed out that the messenger of court’s return of service arose from the first respondent’s papers and therefore could not have been considered at the time the certificate of urgency was prepared.  He also pointed out that the certificate of urgency is not there to argue the merits of the matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> I found favour with the submissions made on behalf of the applicant.  The <i>ex parte</i> application was not one of the documents considered by the deponent to the certificate of urgency.  The messenger of court’s return of service was in the <i>ex parte</i> application.  The certifying legal practitioner cannot be faulted for not considering documents that were not before her.  In addition, para 1.7 of the founding affidavit does not refer to restoration of occupation as alleged but to service of the order which gave applicant 24 hours to comply.  On that basis I found no merit in the first point <i>in limine.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the second point <i>in limine,</i> <i>Advocate Sithole</i> submitted that the matter was not urgent as restoration of occupation was lawfully done by the messenger of court.  He further submitted that the order was executed before the entry of the notice of appeal.  He submitted that there is a dispute of fact as to the time of execution of the order vis-à-vis noting of the appeal and that the dispute can only be resolved by calling the Deputy Messenger of Court.  On the third point <i>in limine,</i> <i>Advocate Sithole</i> argued that in the face of the existence of the return of service from the messenger of court there was no spoliation.  On the fourth point <i>in limine,</i> it was submitted for the first respondent that the relief sought is incompetent as the matter is <i>res judicata. Advocate Sithole </i>submitted that the magistrates court had already determined the issue of exclusive restoration sought by the applicant and that the present application is a disguised appeal.   On the last point <i>in limine</i>, <i>Advocate Sithole</i> pointed out that it is a lie that applicant was despoiled as restoration was effected by the messenger of court.  He referred to the case of <i>Leader Tread Zimbabwe </i>v<b> </b><i>T.M.Smith</i><b> </b>HH 131/03 in which it is stated that if a litigant lies or tells a lie on a material aspect of evidence, she is taken to have lied in everything.  On the basis of that case, <i>Advocate Sithole </i>submitted that once there is a lie about what happened on 17 November 2012 the court should disregard everything Applicant submitted and dismiss the application.  He further submitted that applicant stated that she was in peaceful and undisturbed occupation yet in separate proceedings there is an indication that a tenant leases the whole premises.  He submitted also that the inconsistency in evidence entitles the court to conclude that she is lying and that as the credibility of the applicant is in question the application should be struck off with costs on a punitive scale.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> referred to the case of <i>Mushore </i>v<i> Mbanga &amp; Ors</i> HH 381/16 in response to the issue of the alleged lack of urgency.   He pointed out that what constitutes urgency as established in the <i>Mushore </i>v<i> Mbanga &amp; Ors</i> case (supra) is how swiftly one acts and what consequences would befall the litigant who does not approach the court swiftly.  He argued that the submissions on behalf of the first respondent are on the merits of the matter.  He pointed out that the issue of timely action was not addressed.  He also pointed out that the question of harm is considered whether at the time applicant acted she had a basis for fearing harm.  Also, that applicant had established spoliation and that she had been rendered homeless.  <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> disputed that there are material disputes of facts that cannot be resolved on the papers.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif">            In the case of </span></span></span><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Kuvarega </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v<i> Registrar –General &amp; Anor</i></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif"> 1998 (1) ZLR 188 (H) what constitutes urgency is defined in the following terms:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“What constitutes urgency is not only the imminent arrival of the day of reckoning; a matter is urgent, if at the time the need to act arises, the matter cannot wait.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif"><span style="font-variant:small-caps">makarau j</span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.5pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Sylfaen&quot;,serif"> (</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">as she then was) in <i>Document Support Centre (Pvt) Ltd</i> v<i> T.F Mapuvire</i><b> </b>HH 117-2006 expressed the view that urgent applications are those where if the courts fail to act, the applicants may well be within their rights to dismissively suggest to the court that it should not bother to act subsequently as the position would have become irreversible and irreversibly so to the prejudice of the applicant.   I was satisfied that applicant’s case met the requirements for urgency and therefore found no merit in the second point<i> in limine.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> submitted that the final three points<i> in limine</i> go to the merits of the matter. He submitted that when the appeal was noted, the right to execute was lost in accordance with s 40 (3) of the magistrates court Act [<i>Chapter 7:10</i>], even if aided by the messenger of court. He pointed out that first respondent did not state the time execution was effected and did not dispute that he went to the premises in the afternoon as stated in para 2.4 of the founding affidavit. Since the returns of service show that first respondent and the messenger of court were served with the notices of appeal in the morning of the same day,<i> Advocate Mubaiwa</i> argued that there is no dispute of fact as by the time first respondent took occupation of the premises he was barred in terms of s 40 (3) of the magistrates court Act.  He concluded that applicant had successfully proven that she had been unlawfully despoiled. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> disputed that the relief sought is incompetent and averred that the defence of <i>res judicata</i> applied.  He pointed out that the issue before the court does not affect the order by the magistrate but is about reversing resort to self-help.  He further pointed out that in any event the order of the magistrate was invalid in that it has a return date and yet it is final in effect and the order sought is identical to what was granted in the interim.  On the issue of falsehoods <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> indicated that the affidavit relied on for that averment was not filed and is therefore not part of a court record. He referred to the case of<b> </b><i>Bozimo Trade &amp; Development Company (Pvt) Ltd </i>v<i> First Merchant Bank of Zimbabwe &amp; Others </i>2000 (1) ZLR 1 (H) for the submission that a litigant who misleads the court in some respect is not non-suited by reason of falsehood but is penalized by an order of costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I agreed with <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> that the points in limine are related to the merits of the matter.  The issue of the return of service in the <i>ex parte</i> application is central.  The answer to questions whether or not there is urgency and whether or not there was spoliation comes from examining the return of service and establishing what happened first, execution of the <i>ex parte</i> order or service of the notice of appeal.  I found no merit in the points <i>in limine</i> and dismissed them all.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUBMISSIONS BY THE PARTIES</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">stated that the requirements for spoliation set out in <i>Chisveto </i>v<i> Minister of Local Government &amp; Town Planning </i>1984 (1) ZLR 248 are satisfied in the founding affidavit. The requirements are that applicant should allege and establish that she was in peaceful and undisturbed possession of the premises.  She must also allege and establish that respondent took that possession from her unlawfully or otherwise without her consent.  He pointed out that the ruling in the Domestic Violence Court indicates that first respondent had prayed that he be allowed access or to return to the house and that that prayer would not have been made if he had been in occupation.  Further that the fact that the application seeking access had been made confirmed that possession was with applicant.  He stated that the occupation was undisturbed that is why first respondent had to approach the court for permission to return.  In any event first respondent had admitted that he had been away from the premises since December 2020 and that fact is in the magistrate’s ruling on page 17 of the record.  It was submitted for applicant that on the authority of <i>Mining Industry Pension Fund </i>v<i> Dab Marketing (Pvt) Ltd</i> SC 25/12 the admission by the first respondent transformed into a factual finding.  The first requirement for spoliation was therefore established.  On the second requirement, <i>Advocate Mubaiwa</i> submitted that the issue turns around the return of service and s 40 (3) of the magistrates court Act [<i>Chapter 7:10</i>].   He pointed out that applicant stated in her founding affidavit that first respondent came to despoil her in the afternoon and yet the issue of time is not engaged in the opposing affidavit.  Further that even the return of service by the fourth respondent does not indicate what time execution was done.  He submitted that in light of the fact that the notice of appeal had been served on the fourth respondent at 0913hours and on first respondent’s legal practitioners at 1100hours, it follows that the execution carried out in the afternoon was not in terms of the law and it amounted to spoliation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mubaiwa</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> also submitted that applicant prayed for her appeal to be heard on an urgent basis.  He placed reliance on the case of <i>Zimbabwe Development Party </i>v<i> Minister of Justice</i><b> </b><i>and Others </i>CCZ 11/17 for the position that in appropriate cases an order can be given for the urgent hearing of an appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, <i>Advocate Sithole</i> stated that it is competent to seek the urgent set down of an appeal or review.  He however had reservations on the practicality of the order sought in relation to enforcement considering administrative processes that are necessary before an appeal is heard. He pointed out, among other things, that the order sought is silent on the issue of the invitation to the parties to inspect the record and there is no provision for the filing of heads of argument.  On the issue of spoliation, <i>Advocate Sithole</i> submitted that there is an extant order granted by the magistrates court and enforcement of an order through the messenger of court does not amount to unlawful conduct or spoliatory conduct.  He pointed out that there are two extant orders which recognize and afford both parties rights to access and occupation of the premises.  He further pointed out that in the face of the regular return of service by the messenger of court, there cannot be any act of spoliation.  According to him, first respondent had occupation restored to him before the appeal was noted.  He urged the court to utilize Rule 60 (8) and call the messenger of court for <i>viva voce</i> evidence on the time execution was effected.  He persisted that there was no spoliation and that applicant voluntarily left the premises.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE DECISION MADE AND REASONS THEREOF</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The spoliation order was granted with amendments to the draft order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Paragraphs 1-4, 9 and 10 of the draft order were granted with amendments.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Paragraphs 5-8 of the draft order are not granted</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is common cause that first respondent was, as from December 2020, not residing at the matrimonial premises. On 23 September 2021 he applied for a protection order   in terms of the Domestic Violence Act [<i>Chapter 5:16</i>] alleging abuse, displacement and neglect.  The application was dismissed.  The ruling dismissing the application is stamped 7 November 2021. On 15 November 2021, first respondent obtained a spoliation order <i>ex parte </i>with 2 December 2021 as the return date.  The order was for restoration of access and occupation within 24 hours of service upon Applicant.  On 16 November 2021 applicant appealed against the <i>ex parte</i> spoliation order. The notice of appeal was served on 17 November 2021 the messenger of court at 0913 hours and on first respondent’s Legal Practitioners at 1100 hours.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant alleged that respondent resorted to self-help and broke into the premises in the afternoon of 17 November 2021.  She alleged that he was not assisted either by the police or the messenger of court.  She further alleged that this was illegal as she had noted an appeal and the spoliation order could not be executed without the leave of the court pending the appeal. First respondent alleged that the court order was executed by the messenger of court and the applicant and her tenant voluntarily left the house.  The return of service by the messenger of court is attached to the opposing affidavit. First respondent argued that a lawful process was followed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court noted that applicant’s founding affidavit and the supporting affidavit of Nicole Anne Le Grange specifically stated that first respondent came in the afternoon of 17 November 2021.  First respondent did not proffer the time he alleges he was assisted by the messenger of court.  The return of service from the messenger of court does not indicate the time execution was done. The locksmith who allegedly accompanied the first respondent and the messenger of court did not depose to an affidavit confirming the time he accompanied them to the premises.  It is trite that what is not disputed is taken as admitted.  With the issue of the time first respondent went to the premises on 17 November 2021 not having been put in issue on the papers, there was no dispute of fact to talk about.  I am not persuaded that the circumstances of this case warrant the resort to Rule 60 (8) of the High Court Rules 2021.  The rule is not meant to supplement shortcomings in a litigant’s pleadings. Clearly in this case it was within first respondent’s means to supply the crucial information on the time the spoliation order was executed at the time of filing his notice of opposition.  On a balance of probabilities, first respondent and whoever accompanied, he went to the premises in the afternoon, meaning that he had already been served with the notice of appeal. It follows that he ought to have sought leave to execute pending appeal. His occupation of the premises was therefore in violation of the law.   First respondent stated that applicant was there and voluntarily left the premises with her tenant.  He therefore confirmed that applicant was in occupation of the premises when he went there pursuant to the spoliation order. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I find that applicant has satisfied the requirements for a spoliation order in her favour.  I am not inclined to grant the request for an order for the urgent set down of the appeal.  I find the case of <i>Zimbabwe Development Party </i>v<i> Minister of Justice &amp; Others</i><b> </b>(supra) distinguishable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant was a political party registered in terms of the laws of Zimbabwe which sought to participate in the 2013 harmonised elections.  The Constitutional Court had, in <i>Mawarire </i>v<i> Mugabe N.O. and Others</i> CCZ 1/13, held that elections must be held before 31 July 2013.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The judgment was delivered on 31 May 2013.  On 6 June 2013 the applicant filed a constitutional application in the Constitutional Court under case no. CCZ 25/13.  In that application, the applicant claimed that it was not receiving funding in terms of s 67(4) of the Constitution of Zimbabwe (“the Constitution”) and that it required the same, as provided for in terms of s 155(2)(c) of the Constitution.  After filing that application, the applicant filed an urgent chamber application for the urgent set down of the cause in CCZ 25/13.  The applicant’s case was that should the case not be heard before the President declared elections, the other political parties would have an unfair advantage in the polls.  The case was about whether or not the cause under CCZ 25/13 would be defeated if it was not heard on an urgent basis.  The reasons for the grant of the order sought was that pursuant to that judgment, the President was due to announce election dates any time.  Once the polls were done, the applicant would have no other remedy.  The late CHIEF JUSTICE CHIDYAUSIKU was of the view that the set down of the cause under CCZ 25/13 ought to be treated as a matter of urgency because should the cause under CCZ 25/13 not be heard as a matter of urgency, the applicant would have no other remedy available to it, as the dates of the elections may be announced and other parties would get into full campaign swing, which, not surprisingly, needs funding of some sort in one way or the other.  Worse still, the elections would be held and the applicant would not have been allowed the best possible chance to fight for the various political offices it wanted to run for.  <i>In casu</i>, applicant has not established any impending event that would warrant a conclusion that she would have no other remedy.  Rule 95 (20) provides for a process for the urgent set down of an appeal.  The process is activated by the Judge President or a Senior Judge.  Sufficient administrative processes are available for applicant to follow to ensure the urgent hearing of her appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The prayer for costs on an attorney-client scale was not motivated. Costs on an ordinary scale were therefore granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Matizanadzo &amp; Warhurst, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Magaya &amp; Mandizvidza, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1<sup>st</sup> respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Civil Division of the Attorney-General’s Office, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2<sup>nd</sup> &amp; 3<sup>rd</sup> respondents’ legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Tue, 18 Jan 2022 13:48:53 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 11509 at http://zimlii.org Mugari v Mugari and 2 Others (697 of 2021) [2021] ZWHHC 697 (07 December 2021); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2021/697 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Mugari v Mugari and 2 Others (697 of 2021) [2021] ZWHHC 697 (07 December 2021);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2195" hreflang="x-default">divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW)</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/11/2022 - 07:45</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2021/697/2021-zwhhc-697.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=22262">2021-zwhhc-697.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2021/697/2021-zwhhc-697.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=393556">2021-zwhhc-697.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                               HH 697-21</span></span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 2033/21</span></span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                                                                                                                 </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHIEDZA MUGARI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHARLES MUGARI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">REBECCA CHIKWENGO</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">REGISTRAR OF THE HIGH COURT, N.O</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUCHAWA J</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 8 November and 7 December 2021</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Opposed Matter</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Z.T Zvobgo, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Shadreck</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for first and second respondents</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUCHAWA J:           This is an application for consolidation of two separate summons actions which is made in terms of O 13 r 92 of the High Court Rules, 1971.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant is married to the first respondent in terms of the Marriage Act [<i>Chapter 5:11</i>]. The marriage has however fallen on unhappy times and second respondent instituted divorce proceedings under case number HC 8278/17. The applicant defended this action and the matter is still pending. In 2018, the applicant sued the second respondent for adultery damages under case HC 3122/18. This action was defended too and the matter is also pending. This is an application to consolidate these two matters so that they proceed as one action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Zvobgo </i>submitted on the strength of r 92 that it is both convenient and practical that the two actions be consolidated. For the interpretation of the import of r 92, I was referred to the case of <i>Africom Holdings (Pty) Ltd &amp;2 ORS </i>v<i> Kwanayi Kashangura &amp; Anor</i> HH 357/18 wherein it was held that the overriding consideration is that of convenience.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was argued that in this case the marriage certificate is the epicenter of both actions and the relief sought need not be identical so the application should be granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            It was further argued that since the same legal practitioners represent the parties in the two actions, no surprise would be sprung on any party due to the consolidation. Consolidation was said to have the additional benefit of saving money and avoiding a multiplicity of actions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Furthermore, Mr <i>Zvobgo </i>submitted that the applicant, who is based in Geneva under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, will save money if she travels once particularly due to Covid and related quarantine rules which come at a cost to her. It was also averred that two trials will cost more for all the parties rather than one consolidated trial. It was pointed out that the respondents have not pointed to any prejudice they are likely to suffer hence the balance of convenience favours the granting of the application for consolidation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">My attention was drawn to the fact that the second respondent, who is a legal practitioner had not opposed the application but had indicated that she would be bound by the court’s decision.. The first respondent’s concern that consolidation would delay finalization of the divorce matter was alleged to be insincere as the second respondent could have consented to consolidation upon request by the applicant and speeded up finalization.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">When asked on how the consolidated matter would work out, Mr <i>Zvobgo </i>explained that the applicant intends to rely on the evidence regarding the conduct of first and second respondents to her advantage in the division of matrimonial property by relying on s 7 (4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [<i>Chapter 5:13</i>] and the same facts would work for her in the adultery damages claim. She intends to call the same witnesses.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Shadreck</i> submitted that the applicant has not met the requirements set out in the case of <i>Africom Holdings (Pty) Ltd &amp;2 ORS </i>v<i> Kwanayi Kashangura &amp; Anor supra</i> in that the parties are not the same in the two actions as the applicant is the only common denominator. The issues to be decided are said to be different and unrelated. It was pointed out too, that the applicant did not institute the divorce action and the onus of proving irretrievable breakdown rests on the first respondent whilst the adultery which was said to have been admitted is no longer to be proved and what the applicant is alleged to have to prove is the loss suffered as a result of the adulterous affair.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was submitted that if the two matters are consolidated, the second respondent may suffer the prejudice of being dragged into divorce proceedings which she is not a party to. Mr <i>Shadreck </i>averred that there is a difficulty for the judge presiding over the consolidated matter in terms of sequencing of the two matters. It was suggested that it is within the applicant’s rights to request that the two matters be heard consecutively or sequentially before different judges and the respondent would consent to that so that she only travels once.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Zvobgo</i> retorted that the litigants cannot control how different judges set down matters allocated to them. He then suggested that if consolidation was to be granted, then it was most likely that a fresh pre-trial conference would be held for both matters. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The legal basis for this application is O 13 r 92 which I quote below. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“92. Consolidation of actions</span></i></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Where separate actions have been instituted and it appears to the court convenient to do so, it may upon the application of any party thereto and after notice to all interested parties, make an order consolidating such actions, whereupon—</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>a</i>) the said actions shall proceed as one action;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>b</i>) the court may make any order which it considers proper with regard to the further procedure, and may give one judgment disposing of all matters in dispute in the said actions.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Provided that, with the consent of the parties to the actions, a judge may make an order consolidating the actions and any order which he considers proper with regard to the further procedure.” </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Rule 11 of the South African Uniform Court Rules is identical to our r 92. The South African Courts have had occasion to interpret the word “convenient”. In the case of <i>Mpotsha </i>v<i> Road Accident Fund </i>2000 (4) SA 696 it was held that convenience connotes “not only facility or expedience or ease but appropriateness in the sense that procedure would be convenient if in all the circumstances of the case, it appears to be fitting and fair to the parties concerned.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This was put differently in <i>New Zealand Insurance v Stone and ORS</i> 1963 (3) 63 CPD wherein it was stated as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“…..the court will not order a consolidation of trials unless satisfied that such a course is favoured by the balance of convenience and that there is no possibility of prejudice being suffered by any party. By prejudice in this context it seems to me is meant substantial prejudice sufficient to cause the court to refuse consolidation of actions, even though the balance of convenience would favour it.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Amler’s Precedents of Pleadings, 4<sup>th</sup> Edition by Harms, puts adultery damages as a related cause of action to divorce as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“A claim for damages is usually conjoined with a claim for divorce against the guilty spouse”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>casu </i>the two actions are pending in the same court. The parties are not necessarily the same. It is only the applicant who is common to both actions. She is the defendant in the divorce matter though she states she has put forward the reason for breakdown of her marriage as the adulterous affair between first and second respondents in her counterclaim. The issues to be decided are somehow related in that the divorce centers on a subsisting marriage and the adultery damages claim stems from the consequences of the marriage.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In terms of the evidence, what would be common to both actions are the particulars of the adultery in order to prove general damages in respect of loss of consortium and infliction of <i>contumelia. </i>That evidence would be important for the applicant’s claim in respect of sharing of matrimonial property, by operation of section 7 (4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [<i>Chapter 5: 13</i>]</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“ (4) In making an order in terms of subsection (1) an appropriate court shall have regard to all the circumstances</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">of the case, including the following—</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>a</i>) the income-earning capacity, assets and other financial resources which each spouse and child has or is</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">likely to have in the foreseeable future;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>b</i>) the financial needs, obligations and responsibilities which each spouse and child has or is likely to have in</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">the foreseeable future;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>c</i>) the standard of living of the family, including the manner in which any child was being educated or trained</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">or expected to be educated or trained;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>d</i>) the age and physical and mental condition of each spouse and child;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>e</i>) the direct or indirect contribution made by each spouse to the family, including contributions made by</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">looking after the home and caring for the family and any other domestic duties;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>f</i>) the value to either of the spouses or to any child of any benefit, including a pension or gratuity, which such</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">spouse or child will lose as a result of the dissolution of the marriage;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>g</i>) the duration of the marriage;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">and in so doing the court shall endeavor as far as is reasonable and practicable and, having regard to their conduct, is just to do so, to place the spouses and children in the position they would have been in had a normal marriage relationship continued between the spouses</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.”</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> My emphasis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The above section makes it clear that the conduct of the parties is relevant in determining on division of matrimonial property. This means therefore that the issues to be decided are related</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Since the fact of the adultery having occurred is admitted, there is no prejudice to be suffered by the first and second respondents. They are already parties in a three way dance, whose actions affect each other.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The only prejudice pointed to by the first respondent is that there will be a delay in the finalization of the divorce. It appears that in the divorce matter, the parties have signed the joint pretrial conference minute but in the adultery damages matter, the second respondent appears to be stalling matters as she has not filed own Pretrial conference papers despite a reminder on 12 July 2021. If the matters are consolidated, there would be need for a new joint PTC minute to be signed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is the obvious convenience to all parties and the court as costs would be saved through one trial. The applicant who is based in Geneva would not have to travel twice for the two matters to be heard. The legal practitioners are the same and time would also be saved. The second respondent wisely did not oppose consolidation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The balance of convenience favours the granting of consolidation as no substantial prejudice was shown by the first respondent warranting the refusal of consolidation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I hereby order as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application for consolidation of the two actions instituted under case numbers HC 8278/17 and HC 3122/18 be and is hereby granted</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The third respondent be and is hereby directed to consolidate the two court records HC 8278/17 and  HC 3122/18 so that they proceed as a single record  under case number HC 8278/17</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The third respondent is ordered to file her pretrial conference papers in matter HC 3122/18 within ten days of this order to facilitate the holding of a joint pretrial conference for the consolidated matters</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first and second respondents to pay costs</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Messrs Chingoma Zvobgo Attorneys</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal, practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mungeni &amp; Muzvondiwa</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-7049e7981aa930f2a86b3dfc1363de6b60ade02cdb18b629cd483c84340645e5"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                               HH 697-21</span></span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 2033/21</span></span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                                                                                                                 </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHIEDZA MUGARI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHARLES MUGARI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">REBECCA CHIKWENGO</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">REGISTRAR OF THE HIGH COURT, N.O</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUCHAWA J</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 8 November and 7 December 2021</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Opposed Matter</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Z.T Zvobgo, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Shadreck</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for first and second respondents</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUCHAWA J:           This is an application for consolidation of two separate summons actions which is made in terms of O 13 r 92 of the High Court Rules, 1971.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant is married to the first respondent in terms of the Marriage Act [<i>Chapter 5:11</i>]. The marriage has however fallen on unhappy times and second respondent instituted divorce proceedings under case number HC 8278/17. The applicant defended this action and the matter is still pending. In 2018, the applicant sued the second respondent for adultery damages under case HC 3122/18. This action was defended too and the matter is also pending. This is an application to consolidate these two matters so that they proceed as one action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Zvobgo </i>submitted on the strength of r 92 that it is both convenient and practical that the two actions be consolidated. For the interpretation of the import of r 92, I was referred to the case of <i>Africom Holdings (Pty) Ltd &amp;2 ORS </i>v<i> Kwanayi Kashangura &amp; Anor</i> HH 357/18 wherein it was held that the overriding consideration is that of convenience.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was argued that in this case the marriage certificate is the epicenter of both actions and the relief sought need not be identical so the application should be granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            It was further argued that since the same legal practitioners represent the parties in the two actions, no surprise would be sprung on any party due to the consolidation. Consolidation was said to have the additional benefit of saving money and avoiding a multiplicity of actions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Furthermore, Mr <i>Zvobgo </i>submitted that the applicant, who is based in Geneva under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, will save money if she travels once particularly due to Covid and related quarantine rules which come at a cost to her. It was also averred that two trials will cost more for all the parties rather than one consolidated trial. It was pointed out that the respondents have not pointed to any prejudice they are likely to suffer hence the balance of convenience favours the granting of the application for consolidation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">My attention was drawn to the fact that the second respondent, who is a legal practitioner had not opposed the application but had indicated that she would be bound by the court’s decision.. The first respondent’s concern that consolidation would delay finalization of the divorce matter was alleged to be insincere as the second respondent could have consented to consolidation upon request by the applicant and speeded up finalization.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">When asked on how the consolidated matter would work out, Mr <i>Zvobgo </i>explained that the applicant intends to rely on the evidence regarding the conduct of first and second respondents to her advantage in the division of matrimonial property by relying on s 7 (4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [<i>Chapter 5:13</i>] and the same facts would work for her in the adultery damages claim. She intends to call the same witnesses.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Shadreck</i> submitted that the applicant has not met the requirements set out in the case of <i>Africom Holdings (Pty) Ltd &amp;2 ORS </i>v<i> Kwanayi Kashangura &amp; Anor supra</i> in that the parties are not the same in the two actions as the applicant is the only common denominator. The issues to be decided are said to be different and unrelated. It was pointed out too, that the applicant did not institute the divorce action and the onus of proving irretrievable breakdown rests on the first respondent whilst the adultery which was said to have been admitted is no longer to be proved and what the applicant is alleged to have to prove is the loss suffered as a result of the adulterous affair.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was submitted that if the two matters are consolidated, the second respondent may suffer the prejudice of being dragged into divorce proceedings which she is not a party to. Mr <i>Shadreck </i>averred that there is a difficulty for the judge presiding over the consolidated matter in terms of sequencing of the two matters. It was suggested that it is within the applicant’s rights to request that the two matters be heard consecutively or sequentially before different judges and the respondent would consent to that so that she only travels once.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Zvobgo</i> retorted that the litigants cannot control how different judges set down matters allocated to them. He then suggested that if consolidation was to be granted, then it was most likely that a fresh pre-trial conference would be held for both matters. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The legal basis for this application is O 13 r 92 which I quote below. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“92. Consolidation of actions</span></i></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Where separate actions have been instituted and it appears to the court convenient to do so, it may upon the application of any party thereto and after notice to all interested parties, make an order consolidating such actions, whereupon—</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>a</i>) the said actions shall proceed as one action;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>b</i>) the court may make any order which it considers proper with regard to the further procedure, and may give one judgment disposing of all matters in dispute in the said actions.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Provided that, with the consent of the parties to the actions, a judge may make an order consolidating the actions and any order which he considers proper with regard to the further procedure.” </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Rule 11 of the South African Uniform Court Rules is identical to our r 92. The South African Courts have had occasion to interpret the word “convenient”. In the case of <i>Mpotsha </i>v<i> Road Accident Fund </i>2000 (4) SA 696 it was held that convenience connotes “not only facility or expedience or ease but appropriateness in the sense that procedure would be convenient if in all the circumstances of the case, it appears to be fitting and fair to the parties concerned.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This was put differently in <i>New Zealand Insurance v Stone and ORS</i> 1963 (3) 63 CPD wherein it was stated as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“…..the court will not order a consolidation of trials unless satisfied that such a course is favoured by the balance of convenience and that there is no possibility of prejudice being suffered by any party. By prejudice in this context it seems to me is meant substantial prejudice sufficient to cause the court to refuse consolidation of actions, even though the balance of convenience would favour it.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Amler’s Precedents of Pleadings, 4<sup>th</sup> Edition by Harms, puts adultery damages as a related cause of action to divorce as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“A claim for damages is usually conjoined with a claim for divorce against the guilty spouse”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>casu </i>the two actions are pending in the same court. The parties are not necessarily the same. It is only the applicant who is common to both actions. She is the defendant in the divorce matter though she states she has put forward the reason for breakdown of her marriage as the adulterous affair between first and second respondents in her counterclaim. The issues to be decided are somehow related in that the divorce centers on a subsisting marriage and the adultery damages claim stems from the consequences of the marriage.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In terms of the evidence, what would be common to both actions are the particulars of the adultery in order to prove general damages in respect of loss of consortium and infliction of <i>contumelia. </i>That evidence would be important for the applicant’s claim in respect of sharing of matrimonial property, by operation of section 7 (4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act [<i>Chapter 5: 13</i>]</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“ (4) In making an order in terms of subsection (1) an appropriate court shall have regard to all the circumstances</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">of the case, including the following—</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>a</i>) the income-earning capacity, assets and other financial resources which each spouse and child has or is</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">likely to have in the foreseeable future;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>b</i>) the financial needs, obligations and responsibilities which each spouse and child has or is likely to have in</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">the foreseeable future;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>c</i>) the standard of living of the family, including the manner in which any child was being educated or trained</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">or expected to be educated or trained;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>d</i>) the age and physical and mental condition of each spouse and child;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>e</i>) the direct or indirect contribution made by each spouse to the family, including contributions made by</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">looking after the home and caring for the family and any other domestic duties;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>f</i>) the value to either of the spouses or to any child of any benefit, including a pension or gratuity, which such</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">spouse or child will lose as a result of the dissolution of the marriage;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(<i>g</i>) the duration of the marriage;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">and in so doing the court shall endeavor as far as is reasonable and practicable and, having regard to their conduct, is just to do so, to place the spouses and children in the position they would have been in had a normal marriage relationship continued between the spouses</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.”</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> My emphasis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The above section makes it clear that the conduct of the parties is relevant in determining on division of matrimonial property. This means therefore that the issues to be decided are related</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Since the fact of the adultery having occurred is admitted, there is no prejudice to be suffered by the first and second respondents. They are already parties in a three way dance, whose actions affect each other.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The only prejudice pointed to by the first respondent is that there will be a delay in the finalization of the divorce. It appears that in the divorce matter, the parties have signed the joint pretrial conference minute but in the adultery damages matter, the second respondent appears to be stalling matters as she has not filed own Pretrial conference papers despite a reminder on 12 July 2021. If the matters are consolidated, there would be need for a new joint PTC minute to be signed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is the obvious convenience to all parties and the court as costs would be saved through one trial. The applicant who is based in Geneva would not have to travel twice for the two matters to be heard. The legal practitioners are the same and time would also be saved. The second respondent wisely did not oppose consolidation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The balance of convenience favours the granting of consolidation as no substantial prejudice was shown by the first respondent warranting the refusal of consolidation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I hereby order as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application for consolidation of the two actions instituted under case numbers HC 8278/17 and HC 3122/18 be and is hereby granted</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The third respondent be and is hereby directed to consolidate the two court records HC 8278/17 and  HC 3122/18 so that they proceed as a single record  under case number HC 8278/17</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The third respondent is ordered to file her pretrial conference papers in matter HC 3122/18 within ten days of this order to facilitate the holding of a joint pretrial conference for the consolidated matters</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first and second respondents to pay costs</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Messrs Chingoma Zvobgo Attorneys</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal, practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mungeni &amp; Muzvondiwa</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Tue, 11 Jan 2022 07:45:04 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 11479 at http://zimlii.org Maenzanise v Chimuti (613 of 2021) [2021] ZWHHC 613 (03 November 2021); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2021/613 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Maenzanise v Chimuti (613 of 2021) [2021] ZWHHC 613 (03 November 2021);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2195" hreflang="x-default">divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1866" hreflang="en">Matrimonial Property Law</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2269" hreflang="x-default">Urgent Application</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2271" hreflang="x-default">what constitutes urgency (Urgent application)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2272" hreflang="x-default">when may be made (Urgent application)</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/08/2021 - 08:21</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2021/613/2021-zwhhc-613.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=21478">2021-zwhhc-613.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2021/613/2021-zwhhc-613.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=320628">2021-zwhhc-613.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right">HH 613-21</p> <p class="text-align-right">HC 5971/21</p> <p class="text-align-right"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GRACE MAENZANISE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DENIAL MURAMBIWA CHIMUTI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MANZUNZU J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 2 &amp; 3 November 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENT CHAMBER APPLICATION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> A Masango</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">N F Kambarami</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MANZUNZU J: The parties who were husband and wife were divorced through an order of this court on 21 May 2020 in case number HC 10986/17.  The applicant was the plaintiff and respondent was the defendant. As part of the ancillary order, para 9 in part reads;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> “ The plaintiff is hereby awarded a 75 per share in Stand 655 The Grange, Harare whilst the defendant is awarded a 25 per cent share thereof.</span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">…</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">The plaintiff is hereby granted the option to buy out the defendant’s share within 6 months of receipt of the evaluation report or within such longer time as the parties may agree.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> Should the plaintiff fail to exercise the above option the property shall be sold to best advantage by an estate agent mutually agreed by the parties. Failing such agreement one shall be appointed the Registrar from his list of independent estate agents. </span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">The net proceeds of the sale shall be distributed in terms of the sharing ratio of 75 per cent for the plaintiff and 25 per cent for the defendant.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant has filed this application on an urgent basis seeking the following order as amended at the hearing:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“TERMS OF THE FINAL ORDER SOUGHT</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">The extension of the period within which applicant was to buy out respondent twenty percent share in stand 655 the Grange HC 10986/17 be and is hereby confirmed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Clause 9 ii of the court order in HC 10986/17 be and is hereby amended/varied to read as follows;</span></span></span></span> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Plaintiff be and is hereby given an option to buy out defendant within 6 (six) months from the date of this order.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Respondent pay costs of suit.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">INTERIM RELIEF GRANTED</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">That pending the determination of this matter;</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Should any process to sale the property by private treaty having been commenced in compliance with clause 9 (iii) of the order in HC 10986/17 such process be and is hereby suspended.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant says the application is brought in terms of section 9 of the Matrimonial Causes Act, Chapter 5:13 which provides that; “Without prejudice to the Maintenance Act [<i>Chapter 5:09</i>], an appropriate court may, on good cause shown, vary, suspend or rescind an order made in terms of section <i>seven</i>, and subsections (2), (3) and (4) of that section shall apply, <i>mutatis mutandis</i>, in respect of any such variation, suspension or rescission.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant confirms she received the evaluation report on 29 April 2021. She had up to 29 October 2021 to exercise her option to buy out the respondent. She failed for one reason or the other. She then filed the present application a day before the expiration of the 6 months. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is opposed by the respondent who has raised points <i>in limine</i> which are subject of this ruling. Respondent alleges that the matter is not urgent, that the court is <i>functus officio</i> as s 9 of the Matrimonial Causes Act was restricted to the issues of maintenance and that the provisional order was defective in so far as it sought a final order. I will now turn to the preliminary points.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENCY</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The requirements of urgency are settled. In <i>Kuvarega</i> v <i>Registrar-general &amp; Anor</i> 1998 (1) ZLR 188 (HC) it was stated “What constitutes urgency is not only the imminent arrival of the day of reckoning; a matter is urgent, if at the time the need to act arises, the matter cannot wait. Urgency which stems from a deliberate or careless abstention from action until the dead-line draws near is not the type of urgency contemplated by the rules.” </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Boniface Denenga &amp; Anor</i> v <i>Ecobank Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd &amp; 2 Others </i>HH 177-14 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">MAWADZE J</span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> identified a common thread in the cases which dealt    with the issue of urgency. At p 4 of the cyclostyled judgment he stated that;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> “The general thread which runs through all these cases is that a matter is urgent if, </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-54.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“(a)            It cannot wait the observance of the normal procedural and time frames set by the rules of the court in ordinary applications as to do so would render negatively the relief sought</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:normal"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">  (b)            There is no other alternative remedy.</span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-54.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">  (c)            The applicant treated the matter as urgent by acting timeously and if there is a delay to give good or a sufficient reason for such a delay.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">         (d)          The relief sought should be of an interim nature and proper at law.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">In casu</span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> applicant only acted a day before the deadline. Mr Masango who appeared for the applicant argued that the matter was urgent and that the applicant treated the matter as urgent. When she realized she could not meet the deadline, applicant wrote a letter to the presiding judge asking for an extension. This was on 14 October 2021 before she was advised by the Registrar of the proper course to take. Mr Kambarami for the respondent argued that the need to act arose when applicant realised she could not beat the deadline. That was in August 2021as per her averments. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It is instructive to refer to what the applicant said in her affidavit. In paragraph 17 of her founding affidavit she said; “During the period of lockdown June to August 2021, I could not generate the much needed funds and it affected my projections to secure US$75 000.00 which is the twenty-five  (25) percent share of the property due to respondent which is a substantial amount of money.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is clear the applicant could see the possibility of her failure to raise the required amount as far back as August 2021. She did nothing except to write a letter on 14 October 2021 asking for an extension.  She waited at her own peril for the day of reckoning. She did not act at the time when the need to act arose. In <i>Gwarada </i>v <i>Johnson &amp; Ors</i>, HH 91/09 it was stated,   </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“Urgency arises when an event occurs which requires contemporaneous resolution, the absence of which would cause extreme prejudice to the applicant. The existence of circumstances which may, in their very nature, be prejudicial to the applicant is not the only factor that a court has to take into account, time being of the essence in the sense that <u>the applicant must exhibit urgency in the manner in which he has reacted to the event</u> or the threats, whatever it may be.”  (emphasis is mine).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">An applicant has a duty to lay out in his/her founding affidavit why he/she says the matter is urgent. In <i>Mayor Logistics (Private) Limited</i> v <i>Zimbabwe Revenue Authority CCZ</i> 7/14 the court had  this to say; “A party favoured with an order for a hearing of the case on an urgent basis gains a considerable advantage over persons whose disputes are being set down for hearing in the normal course of events.  <u>A party seeking to be accorded the preferential treatment must set out, in the founding affidavit, facts that distinguish the case from others to justify the granting of the order for urgent hearing without breach of the principle that similarly situated litigants are entitled to be treated alike.</u>”(my emphasis).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> the application does not meet the requirements for urgency. If anything the urgency is self created. In any event nothing was shown that an effort was made to engage the other party seeking an extension by consent as provided for in the order of the court. The matter having failed the test for urgency, there is no need to deal with the other preliminary points.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Disposition</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The matter is not urgent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is struck off the roll with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Muronda Malinga Legal Practice</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">L T Muringani Law Practice</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-f6f498a0043ead41b44cd79168b53fd38b2047685d7f550cadbf35582d5c9540"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right">HH 613-21</p> <p class="text-align-right">HC 5971/21</p> <p class="text-align-right"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GRACE MAENZANISE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DENIAL MURAMBIWA CHIMUTI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MANZUNZU J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 2 &amp; 3 November 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENT CHAMBER APPLICATION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> A Masango</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">N F Kambarami</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MANZUNZU J: The parties who were husband and wife were divorced through an order of this court on 21 May 2020 in case number HC 10986/17.  The applicant was the plaintiff and respondent was the defendant. As part of the ancillary order, para 9 in part reads;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> “ The plaintiff is hereby awarded a 75 per share in Stand 655 The Grange, Harare whilst the defendant is awarded a 25 per cent share thereof.</span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">…</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">The plaintiff is hereby granted the option to buy out the defendant’s share within 6 months of receipt of the evaluation report or within such longer time as the parties may agree.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> Should the plaintiff fail to exercise the above option the property shall be sold to best advantage by an estate agent mutually agreed by the parties. Failing such agreement one shall be appointed the Registrar from his list of independent estate agents. </span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">The net proceeds of the sale shall be distributed in terms of the sharing ratio of 75 per cent for the plaintiff and 25 per cent for the defendant.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant has filed this application on an urgent basis seeking the following order as amended at the hearing:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“TERMS OF THE FINAL ORDER SOUGHT</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">The extension of the period within which applicant was to buy out respondent twenty percent share in stand 655 the Grange HC 10986/17 be and is hereby confirmed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Clause 9 ii of the court order in HC 10986/17 be and is hereby amended/varied to read as follows;</span></span></span></span> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Plaintiff be and is hereby given an option to buy out defendant within 6 (six) months from the date of this order.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Respondent pay costs of suit.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">INTERIM RELIEF GRANTED</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">That pending the determination of this matter;</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Should any process to sale the property by private treaty having been commenced in compliance with clause 9 (iii) of the order in HC 10986/17 such process be and is hereby suspended.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant says the application is brought in terms of section 9 of the Matrimonial Causes Act, Chapter 5:13 which provides that; “Without prejudice to the Maintenance Act [<i>Chapter 5:09</i>], an appropriate court may, on good cause shown, vary, suspend or rescind an order made in terms of section <i>seven</i>, and subsections (2), (3) and (4) of that section shall apply, <i>mutatis mutandis</i>, in respect of any such variation, suspension or rescission.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant confirms she received the evaluation report on 29 April 2021. She had up to 29 October 2021 to exercise her option to buy out the respondent. She failed for one reason or the other. She then filed the present application a day before the expiration of the 6 months. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is opposed by the respondent who has raised points <i>in limine</i> which are subject of this ruling. Respondent alleges that the matter is not urgent, that the court is <i>functus officio</i> as s 9 of the Matrimonial Causes Act was restricted to the issues of maintenance and that the provisional order was defective in so far as it sought a final order. I will now turn to the preliminary points.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENCY</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The requirements of urgency are settled. In <i>Kuvarega</i> v <i>Registrar-general &amp; Anor</i> 1998 (1) ZLR 188 (HC) it was stated “What constitutes urgency is not only the imminent arrival of the day of reckoning; a matter is urgent, if at the time the need to act arises, the matter cannot wait. Urgency which stems from a deliberate or careless abstention from action until the dead-line draws near is not the type of urgency contemplated by the rules.” </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Boniface Denenga &amp; Anor</i> v <i>Ecobank Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd &amp; 2 Others </i>HH 177-14 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">MAWADZE J</span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> identified a common thread in the cases which dealt    with the issue of urgency. At p 4 of the cyclostyled judgment he stated that;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> “The general thread which runs through all these cases is that a matter is urgent if, </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-54.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“(a)            It cannot wait the observance of the normal procedural and time frames set by the rules of the court in ordinary applications as to do so would render negatively the relief sought</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:normal"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">  (b)            There is no other alternative remedy.</span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-54.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">  (c)            The applicant treated the matter as urgent by acting timeously and if there is a delay to give good or a sufficient reason for such a delay.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">         (d)          The relief sought should be of an interim nature and proper at law.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">In casu</span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> applicant only acted a day before the deadline. Mr Masango who appeared for the applicant argued that the matter was urgent and that the applicant treated the matter as urgent. When she realized she could not meet the deadline, applicant wrote a letter to the presiding judge asking for an extension. This was on 14 October 2021 before she was advised by the Registrar of the proper course to take. Mr Kambarami for the respondent argued that the need to act arose when applicant realised she could not beat the deadline. That was in August 2021as per her averments. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">It is instructive to refer to what the applicant said in her affidavit. In paragraph 17 of her founding affidavit she said; “During the period of lockdown June to August 2021, I could not generate the much needed funds and it affected my projections to secure US$75 000.00 which is the twenty-five  (25) percent share of the property due to respondent which is a substantial amount of money.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is clear the applicant could see the possibility of her failure to raise the required amount as far back as August 2021. She did nothing except to write a letter on 14 October 2021 asking for an extension.  She waited at her own peril for the day of reckoning. She did not act at the time when the need to act arose. In <i>Gwarada </i>v <i>Johnson &amp; Ors</i>, HH 91/09 it was stated,   </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“Urgency arises when an event occurs which requires contemporaneous resolution, the absence of which would cause extreme prejudice to the applicant. The existence of circumstances which may, in their very nature, be prejudicial to the applicant is not the only factor that a court has to take into account, time being of the essence in the sense that <u>the applicant must exhibit urgency in the manner in which he has reacted to the event</u> or the threats, whatever it may be.”  (emphasis is mine).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">An applicant has a duty to lay out in his/her founding affidavit why he/she says the matter is urgent. In <i>Mayor Logistics (Private) Limited</i> v <i>Zimbabwe Revenue Authority CCZ</i> 7/14 the court had  this to say; “A party favoured with an order for a hearing of the case on an urgent basis gains a considerable advantage over persons whose disputes are being set down for hearing in the normal course of events.  <u>A party seeking to be accorded the preferential treatment must set out, in the founding affidavit, facts that distinguish the case from others to justify the granting of the order for urgent hearing without breach of the principle that similarly situated litigants are entitled to be treated alike.</u>”(my emphasis).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> the application does not meet the requirements for urgency. If anything the urgency is self created. In any event nothing was shown that an effort was made to engage the other party seeking an extension by consent as provided for in the order of the court. The matter having failed the test for urgency, there is no need to deal with the other preliminary points.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Disposition</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The matter is not urgent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is struck off the roll with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Muronda Malinga Legal Practice</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">L T Muringani Law Practice</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 08 Nov 2021 08:21:09 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 11423 at http://zimlii.org Coumbis v Coumbis and Another (130 of 2021) [2021] ZWSC 130 (21 October 2021); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/supreme-court-zimbabwe/2021/130 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Coumbis v Coumbis and Another (130 of 2021) [2021] ZWSC 130 (21 October 2021);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2172" hreflang="x-default">Absolution from the instance – principles</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1665" hreflang="en">Company Law</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1667" hreflang="en">Company directors</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2139" hreflang="x-default">custody of child</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2195" hreflang="x-default">divorce (Husband and wife FAMILY LAW)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1866" hreflang="en">Matrimonial Property Law</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 11/07/2021 - 19:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwsc/2021/130/2021-zwsc-130.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=89036">2021-zwsc-130.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwsc/2021/130/2021-zwsc-130.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=783583">2021-zwsc-130.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin-left:336px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Judgment No. SC 130 /21</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:384px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    Civil Appeal No. SC 448/14</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">REPORTABLE (119)</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">PHILIPPA     ANN    COUMBIS</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(1)     RONALD    JOHN     COUMBIS</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(2)    DOVES     FUNERAL     ASSURANCE (PRIVATE) LIMITED </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(On The Purchase of a Half Share of the Matrimonial Home).</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUPREME COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GARWE JA, GOWORA JA &amp; UCHENA JA</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE,  10 OCTOBER 2016, 19 JUNE 2017, </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">23 JANUARY 2018, 23 JANUARY 2020, </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">24 JUNE 2020 &amp; 21 OCTOBER 2021</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Mpofu </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">with<i> </i>Mr<i> T.L Mapuranga</i>, for the appellant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">D. Tivadar</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the respondent for the first respondent</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">l.. T Musekiwa, for the second respondent</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">UCHENA JA:           </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This is an appeal and cross-appeal against parts of the judgment of the High Court dated 4 September 2014 granting a decree of divorce and ancillary relief for and against the appellant (the plaintiff in the court <i>a quo </i>and the appellant in this appeal<i>)</i> and  the cross-appellant (the defendant in the court <i>a quo </i>and<i> </i>first respondent in this appeal<i>)</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FACTUAL BACKGROUND</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The facts of the case can be summarised as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 1 September 1990 the appellant and the first<sup> </sup>respondent were married in terms of the then Marriages Act [<i>Chapter 37</i>]. During the subsistence of the marriage, the parties were blessed with three children namely Murray John Coumbis, who was already an adult at the commencement of divorce proceedings, and the twins Julian Ronald Coumbis and Anton Phillip Coumbis.  Julian and Anton were minors when divorce proceedings were instituted. They are now adults but Julian remains a perpertual minor on account of his mental incapacity.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 5 August 2010, the appellant instituted divorce proceedings against the first respondent.  As Julian and Anton were minors the appellant claimed their custody and maintenance. She also claimed personal maintenance and a share of the assets of the parties.  The appellant also claimed €10 400 from the respondent which she had advanced as a loan to Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, a family business.  She contended that the money was part of her inheritance.  She claimed to have loaned it to the first respondent through Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd.  She claimed the money from him alleging that the aforementioned company was an <i>alter ego </i>of the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent opposed the appellant’s claims and made a claim in reconvention wherein he claimed the custody of the minor children and their maintenance. He contested the appellant’s claim for personal maintenance and matrimonial property. He alleged that some of the properties claimed by the appellant did not form part of their matrimonial estate. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The matter proceeded to a joint pre-trial conference where the following issues were identified and referred to trial:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“a.   The custody of Julian and Anton;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">b.    What amount of maintenance was to be paid to the plaintiff if custody is awarded to her;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">c.     Whether the plaintiff could be awarded the right to reside in the matrimonial home until both children became self-supporting;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">d.    Whether the defendant was obliged to pay personal maintenance to the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">e.    Which properties constituted the matrimonial estate</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">f.     What appropriate order the High Court was supposed to make for the sharing of property.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">PROCEEDINGS IN THE HIGH COURT</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">When the trial commenced, Julian and Anton were no longer minors. However, the parties agreed that Julian was to be treated as a perpetual minor due to his mental incapacity. The parties’ claim for custody and maintenance, therefore, only related to Julian. The parties adduced a lot of documentary evidence to support their respective claims.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">During examination-in-chief, the appellant admitted that she had a broken relationship with Julian. She admitted that she had exchanged nasty emails with him. The appellant also admitted to smoking marijuana. The fact that she smokes marijuana was confirmed by Dr Chibanda who pointed out its adverse effect on her health and especially on her recovery from temporal lobe epilepsy. After hearing the evidence, the judge <i>a quo </i>interviewed Julian in his chambers.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> found that Julian was closer to the first respondent and took into consideration the fact that the two had been staying together after the parties’ separation. It also found that the appellant needed to start a new life independent from the first respondent but still needed financial assistance to cushion her from the effects of the divorce.  The court <i>a quo </i>found that the first respondent was dishonest and not credible in respect of evidence relating to the matrimonial estate.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">          The order granted by the court <i>a quo, </i>quoted<i> verbatim, </i> reads as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“Accordingly it is ordered as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A decree of divorce be and is hereby granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Custody of the perpetual minor child Julian Ronald Coumbis, born on 3 July 1994 be and is hereby awarded to the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff be and is hereby granted reasonable access rights to the said perpetual minor child which shall be exercised as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span> <ol><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">She shall have the right to stay with the said perpetual minor child on alternate weekends.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">She shall have the perpetual minor child on any other special occasions including but not limited to each alternate Easter holidays and Christmas holidays.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall solely be responsible for the upkeep of the said perpetual minor child.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall pay maintenance in respect of the plaintiff in the sum of US$2000-00 per month as per the order granted by the Magistrate’s Court for a period of six (6) months from the date of granting of this order inclusive of the month of September 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:46px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Payments shall be made directly into the plaintiff’s Bank Account whose details shall be provided forthwith to the defendant by the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff is awarded as her sole and exclusive property all household furniture, contents and effects inclusive of all her personal items and jewellery, at the matrimonial house No 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant Harare, excluding the TV set, dinning suite and lounge suite which are awarded to the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="7"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall transfer into the plaintiff’s name a motor vehicle Nissan Navara Registration Number ABD 6847 presently being used by the plaintiff, at his sole cost within thirty (30) days of the grant of this order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant is awarded as his sole and exclusive property, immovable property known as No 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant Harare currently registered in the names of the plaintiff and the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall transfer against payment by him of all transfer costs the said property into his names and the plaintiff shall sign all relevant papers to effect such transfer within 30 days of being requested, failure of which the Sheriff shall sign all the documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall be solely responsible for any encumberances, mortgages or other obligations duly existing or registered by law over the said property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="9"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall transfer all shares of OPIUM INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD, a property owning company whose sole asset is an immovable property known as No. 13 Bates Street Milton Park Harare, to the plaintiff within thirty (30) days of the grant of this order at his cost.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:34px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall be solely responsible for any encumberancies or obligations duly existing or duly registered by law over the said property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:34px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall sign all the relevant documents to effect such transfer failure of which the Sheriff is authorised to sign all such documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="10"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff is awarded as her sole and exclusive property, an immovable property known as No 6 Rosefriars, Avondale Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:46px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff shall transfer against payment by her of all transfer costs the rights title and interest in the said property No. 6 Rosefriars, Avondale Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall within thirty (30)days of being requested to sign all relevant documents to effect such transfer, failure of which the Sheriff is authorised to sign all such documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="11"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff’s claim for cash in the sum of US$100 000-00 be and is hereby dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Absolution from the instance be and is hereby granted in respect of the distribution of the following assets:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">112 Matumi Sands, Lonehill (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">182 Shingara (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Telehic Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Natsbury Trading (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify" value="1"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s claim of £10 400</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="13"><li style="margin-left:50px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall bear the costs of suit.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Aggrieved by parts of the court <i>a quo</i>’s decision, the appellant and the first respondent noted the present appeal and cross-appeal respectively.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GROUNDS OF APPEAL</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        The appeal involved an appeal and a cross-appeal, but the cross-appeal was withdrawn during the hearing of the appeal.The appellant’s grounds of appeal attack the court <i>a quo’s</i> decision on the following issues:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">custody and maintenance of Julian the perpetual minor, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">her claim for inheritance money loaned to a company from the respondent,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the propriety or otherwise of the decision handed down by the court <i>a quo </i>concerning the distribution of the assets of the parties, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">her claim for a lump sum maintenance payment in the sum of US$100 000-00</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the granting of absolution from the instance <i>mero motu </i>by the court <i>a quo </i>at the end of the defence case, and</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">whether or not the respondent should be heard in view of his contemptuous conduct against proceedings in this Court, the court <i>a quo</i> and its orders.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPLICATION BY THE APPELLANT</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In September 2018, the appellant made an application to adduce further evidence to prove that the respondent had, pending the determination of the appeal, interfered with and defied the High Court’s orders.  We, in terms of s 22 (1) (b) (ii) and (v) of the Supreme Court Act [<i>Chapter 7:13</i>], ordered that the matter be remitted to MAWADZE J (the trial judge), for him to conduct an enquiry into the appellant’s allegations and submit a report to us.  On 3 April 2019, after holding an enquiry in compliance with our order, MAWADZE J submitted to us his report in which he made the following factual findings:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FINDINGS OF FACT MADE BY MAWADZE J<i>.</i></span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-45.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:45.0pt 72.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   “1(a)   The perpetual minor Julian Ronald Coumbis (born on 3 July 1994) was removed from Zimbabwe by the respondent and taken to South Africa in 2013 well before the judgment of the court on 4 September 2014. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)   The respondent has not placed any credible evidence before this Court for such conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)    Julian remains in South Africa to date.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)  The appellant Philippa has not been able to exercise any access rights in   respect of Julian (the perpetual minor) as awarded to her in terms of para 3 of this Court’s order</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:102px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-45.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    2. (a)    The respondent sold two immovable properties in South Africa being No. 94 Matumi Sands and No. 112 Matumi Sands and transferred them to third parties.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:94.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)   The only available immovable property in South Africa is No. 182 Shingara against which the appellant successfully placed a caveat.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   3. The respondent removed all movable household goods which had been awarded to the appellant Philippa in terms of para 6 of this Court’s order from No. 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare and took them to South Africa without the appellant’s knowledge or consent. The respondent has not explained his conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:66px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-13.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   4. The motor vehicle, a Nissan Navara Registration Number ABD 6847 awarded to the appellant Philippa in terms of para 7 of this Court’s order was taken by the Vehicle Theft Squad as it was deemed to be subject to criminal investigations for which the respondent is allegedly accountable.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:66px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-13.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   5. The respondent has not done anything to remove the encumbrances on immovable properties either awarded to him or the appellant as per this Court’s order.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    6. After the order of this Court the respondent transferred about USD$2.8 million from Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd to Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    7. The respondent has not complied with the maintenance order granted in favour of the appellant Phillipa in terms of para 5 of this Court’s order and has not paid a single cent.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    8. Lastly, the following assets are still available;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a) No. 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant, Harare Zimbabwe but is still encumbered.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:144px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)  Belgravia House, Harare but is still encumbered.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)   No. 6 Rosefrias, Avondale, Harare Zimbabwe</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:132px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)   No. 13 Bates Street, Milton Park, Harare but is still encumbered.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(e)   No. 182 Shingara in South Africa.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPELLANT’S SUBMISSIONS ON APPEAL</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In submissions before this Court, counsel for the appellant, Mr <i>Mpofu,</i> argued that the report to the Supreme Court following due inquiry by M<span style="font-variant:small-caps">awadze</span> J dated 3 April 2019 confirmed that the first respondent was in contempt of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order. He further submitted that such disobedience went to the root of the matter. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Mpofu </i>further<i> </i>submitted that the court <i>a quo</i>’s decision on custody was influenced by the first respondent’s alienation of Julian against the appellant and that the decision does not promote a bond between the appellant and the perpetual minor.  Counsel for the appellant submitted that from 4 September 2014 to the last date of the hearing, the appellant had not enjoyed access to the perpetual minor because he had been removed from the jurisdiction of this court. He submitted that it was in the best interests of the perpetual minor that he be in the custody of the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In respect of the court <i>a quo </i>granting the first respondent absolution from the instance <i>mero motu</i>, counsel for the appellant submitted that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in view of the fact that the first respondent had made offers which were equivalent to an admission.  He also submitted that the first respondent had given evidence of his shareholding in <i>some</i> of the companies which could have enabled the court <i>a quo</i> to distribute those shares between the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Mpofu</i> submitted that the distribution of the matrimonial assets was limited to three properties.  He contended that evidence led before the court <i>a quo</i> on these assets established that the assets belonged to companies owned by the parties.  He further submitted that the properties had been encumbered by the first respondent and consequently the appellant was disabled from acquiring any title in them inspite of their having been awarded to her by the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In relation to the appellant’s inheritance funds loaned to Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, Mr <i>Mpofu</i> argued that the latter, being the respondent’s <i>alter ego,</i> they had to be returned to the appellant by the first respondent.  He prayed that the appeal succeeds with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE FIRST RESPONDENT’S SUBMISSIONS ON APPEAL</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr<i>. Tivadar</i>, for the first respondent, submitted that even though the first respondent had breached the order of the court <i>a quo</i>, he had a right to be heard in terms of  s 69 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe 2013 (the Constitution). Counsel for the first respondent argued that it was in the best interest of the perpetual minor that the first respondent be heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He contended that, even if it was found that the first respondent had no right of audience before this court, there were no documents relating to the companies proving that the court <i>a quo</i> was handicapped in making its determination.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Regarding the issue of the court <i>a quo</i> granting absolution from the instance <i>mero motu,</i> Mr <i>Tivadar </i>argued that the court <i>a quo </i>came to that conclusion because there was no evidence on the ownership of the companies as the appellant failed to present it to the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In concluding his submissions, Mr Tivadar submitted that the first respondent was withdrawing his cross-appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPELLANT’S RESPONSE</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, counsel for the appellant contended that the enjoyment of the constitutional right to be heard comes with an obligation to obey court orders. He argued that the first respondent is in court to protect something yet he disobeys court orders.  Counsel further argued that the court has inherent jurisdiction in terms of s 176 of the Constitution to determine who can or cannot be heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He submitted that the perpetual minor’s best interests remained with the court as the first respondent’s contempt disentitles him from saying anything that benefits him. Counsel for the appellant submitted that an appellate court does not only deal with the direct dictates of the judgment but also deals with its effects.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FURTHER SUBMISSIONS</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">By letter dated 31 January 2020, Musekiwa and Associates Legal Practitioners for Doves Funeral Assuarance (Pvt) Ltd, informed the Registrar of this Court that its client had bought a half share of No 6 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(the matrimonial home) from a sale in execution conducted by the Sheriff and that that half share of the property had been transferred to their client on 20 February 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        As a result of this information, which had not been placed before us when we heard the appeal on 23 January 2020, parties were invited to appear before us on 24 June 2020 to give them an opportunity to address us on this issue. At that hearing we granted the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“IT IS ORDERED BY CONSENT THAT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Doves Funeral Assurance be and is hereby joined as a party to these proceedings as 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondent with Ronald John Coumbis becoming the 1<sup>st</sup> Respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Musekiwa for Doves Funeral Assurance is to avail documentation confirming the transfer of the half share in the property to itself and file heads of argument in connection therewith by the 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020 and serve the same immediately on the appellant and first respondents’legal practitioners.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mpofu is to file additional heads of argument in response to the heads of argument filed by Doves Funeral Assurance by Friday 3<sup>rd</sup> July 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Ndlovu, for the 1<sup>st</sup> Respondent Ronald John Coumbis is to file his additional heads of argument if any, by Wednesday 8 July 2020.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In his additional heads of argument Mr <i>Mpofu</i>, for the appellant, submitted that the matrimonial home which was jointly owned by the appellant and the first respondent be awarded to the appellant who will thereafter institute proceedings in the High Court to claim back the half share sold to Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd.  He submitted that Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd took a risk when it bought the half share without the consent of the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        The first respondent, whose conduct caused the sale of his half share to Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd, did not file additional heads.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In their heads Musekiwa &amp; Associates, for Doves Funeral Assuarance (Pvt) Ltd,  submitted that it bought the respondent’s half share through the Sheriff’s sale in execution after due notice had been given to the appellant.  They submitted that the half share is no longer part of the appellant and first respondent’s matrimonial assets and is no longer available for distribution to either of them.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ISSUES FOR DETERMINATION BY THIS COURT</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant raised several grounds of appeal but the material issues for determination are as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the first respondent should be heard in view    of his contempt of proceedings of the court<i> a quo </i>and its orders and proceedings before this Court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in awarding custody of Julian to the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting absolution from the instance against part of the appellant’s claims.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the appellant is entitled to claim her monetary inheritance from the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo </i>erred in distributing the immovable property without taking into account the value of the properties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the distribution of the immovable property was fair.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the appellant’s claim for a lump sum maintenance payment in the sum of US$100 000-00 was correctly dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPLICATION OF THE LAW TO THE FACTS</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the first respondent should be heard in view of his contempt of this Court and court <i>a quo’s </i>proceedings and the orders of the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAWADZE J, in his report subsequent to the remittal of the matter for him to inquire into the first respondent’s alleged contempt against its orders, found that the perpetual minor who the appellant was granted access to, had been removed from Zimbabwe and taken to South Africa without the appellant’s knowledge or consent resulting in the appellant not being able to exercise her rights of access.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He also found that all movable household goods at No. 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare awarded to the appellant in terms of para 6 of the court <i>a quo’s</i> order had been removed from the house by the first respondent and taken to South Africa without the appellant’s knowledge or consent. The first respondent did not explain his conduct.  It has also been established that a half share of No 6 Northwood Rise, Mount Pleasant the whole of which had been awarded to the first respondent but was one of the issues raised in this appeal, had been sold and transferred to Doves Funeral Assuarance (Pvt) Ltd because of the first respondent’s indebtedness which led to his half share being sold in execution.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAWADZE J also found that the first respondent had sold two immovable properties in South Africa being No. 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and No. 112 Matumi Sands Lonehil (Pty) Ltd in which he had fifty percent shareholdings in both and that he had thereafter transferred them to third parties without the appellant’s knowledge or consent, at a time when their distribution was pending before the court <i>a quo.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The motor vehicle, a Nissan Navara, Registration Number ABD 6847 awarded to the appellant in terms of para 7 of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order had been taken by the Vehicle Theft Squad as it was deemed to be subject to criminal investigations for which the first respondent was allegedly accountable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The judge also found that the first respondent had not done anything to remove encumbrances from immovable properties awarded to the appellant in terms of the court <i>a quo’s</i> order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He further found that the first respondent caused the transfer of USD$ 2.8 million from Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, a company jointly owned by the parties, to Incavat (Pvt) Ltd, a company incorporated after the separation of the parties in spite of the pending appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further the first respondent had not complied with the maintenance order granted in favour of the appellant in terms of para 5 of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the first respondent’s contemptuous conduct, conceded by his legal practitioner, my considered view is that he has no right to be heard by this Court. It is settled law that a litigant with dirty hands cannot be entertained by the courts. Contempt of court is seriously viewed by the courts and disentitles a party from being afforded a hearing by the courts until he or she has purged the contempt.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent cannot violate a court order on one hand and seek relief from the same court on the other. One cannot be allowed to do so with impunity. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is important to acknowledge the well-known canon that the Constitution is the supreme law and that the rule of law is a founding principle of our nation. The quintessence of the rule of law is this, and simply this, that where there is a law it must be complied with and when courts grant orders they must be obeyed. The Constitution under s 164 (3) provides as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<u>An order or decision of a court binds</u> the State and <u>all persons</u> and government institutions and agencies to <u>which it applies, and must be obeyed by them</u>”  (emphasis added)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>In Re: Prosecutor-General of Zimbabwe </i>on his constitutional independence and protection from direction and control CCZ 13/17 at p 13, the court made the following pertinent remarks:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The simple fact of the matter is that the applicant has not complied with the orders in question and has proffered no explanation whatsoever for such non-compliance. He has for some reason seen it fit to disregard court orders; and yet he expects this Court to overlook his wanton and cavalier nonchalance. For the applicant to refuse to obey court orders, and then to avoid answering the critical question as to why he has not, is tantamount to exhibiting flagrant contempt for this Court. This type of contempt <i>in facie curiae</i> cannot be countenanced by the Court. We have a duty to protect our processes from abuse and scandalous impunity.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The gravity and consequences of such contempt were articulately spelt out in <i>Associated Newspapers of Zimbabwe (Private) Limited </i>v<i> The Minister of State for Information and Publicity in the President’s Office &amp; Others </i>SC 20/03 at p 11<i>, </i>where the court held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The Court will not grant relief to a litigant with dirty hands in the absence of good cause being shown or until such defiance or contempt has been purged… This Court is a court of law, and as such, cannot connive at or condone the applicant’s open defiance of the law. Citizens are obliged to obey the law of the land and argue afterwards… In the absence of an explanation as to why this course was not followed, the inference of a disdain for the law becomes inescapable.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, the first respondent has shown a flagrant disregard of court proceedings of the court <i>a quo</i> and this Court<i>.</i> He has not purged his contempt nor explained his conduct. In respect of some of the terms of the court <i>a quo’s</i> orders, he remains in continuous contempt. Such conduct cannot be countenanced by this Court. It is my considered view that he has no right to be heard. Consequently the submissions made on his behalf by Mr <i>Tivadar </i>will be ignored and not be taken into account in determining this appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in awarding custody of Julian to the first respondent.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> granted custody of the perpetual minor to the first respondent.  The appellant’s complaint on appeal was that custody ought to have been awarded to her.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is trite that the awarding of custody of a minor to either of the parents by a court is governed by the best interests of the minor. Therefore the parent who will be granted custody must satisfy the requirements of the best interests of the child. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Section 81 (2) of the Constitution has codified this position and provides that, in every matter concerning a child, it is the child’s best interests that are paramount and that minor children are entitled to protection of the courts, particularly by the High Court as the upper guardian of the rights of children. Section 81 (2) and (3) reads:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:102px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-40.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:81.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(2)     A child’s best interests are paramount in every matter concerning the child.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-40.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   (3)     Children are entitled to adequate protection by the courts, in particular by the High Court as their upper guardian.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This position was aptly illustrated in <i>Mackintosh (Nee Parkinson) v Mackintosh</i> SC 37/18 at p 15 para 33, where this court held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“A court, such as the court <i>a quo</i>, must always keep in mind that the interests of the minor children are always paramount.  In considering those interests, the court should not allow itself to be misled by the appearances that the parties give.  It must, in addition to any evidence given, be guided by its own experiences and sense of what is fair…” </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Cretney S M on <i>Principles of Family Law</i>,</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> (Third Edition, Sweet &amp; Maxwell, London, 1979) cited with approval in the <i>Mackintosh</i> case, <i>supra</i>, states at p 493  that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“It has traditionally been stressed that the law is not that the welfare of the child is the sole consideration.  There may, for instance, be cases where the public interest overrides the welfare of a particular child.  But the requirement to treat the child’s welfare as the ‘first and paramount’ consideration means </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">‘more than that [it] is to be treated as the top item in a list of items relevant to the matter in question.  [The words] connote a process whereby, when all the relevant facts, relationships, claims and wishes of parents, risks, choices and other circumstances are taken into account and weighed, the course to be followed will be that which is most in the interests of the child’s welfare as that term has now to be understood.  That is the first consideration because it is of first importance and the paramount consideration because it rules upon or determines the course to be followed.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>McCall v McCall</i> 1994 (3) SA 201 (C) at 204-205, the court provided a guideline which can be used in determining the best interests of the child.  It is not exhaustive but covers many factors which have been considered in many jurisdictions. It remarked thus:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In determining what is in the best interests of the child, the Court must decide which of the parents is better able to promote and ensure his physical, moral, emotional and spiritual welfare. This can be assessed by reference to certain factors or criteria which are set out hereunder, not in order of importance, and also bearing in mind that there is a measure of unavoidable overlapping and that some of the listed criteria may differ only as to nuance. The criteria are the following:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a)     the love, affection and other emotional ties which exist between parent and child and the parent's compatibility with the child;   </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)     the capabilities, character and temperament of the parent and the impact thereof on the child's needs and desires;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)     the ability of the parent to communicate with the child and the parent's insight into, understanding of and sensitivity to the child's feelings.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)    The capacity and disposition of the parent to give the child the guidance which he requires;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(e)     the ability of the parent to provide for the basic physical needs of the child, the so-called 'creature comforts', such as food, clothing, housing and the other material needs - generally speaking, the provision of economic security;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(f)     the ability of the parent to provide for the educational well-being and security of the child, both religious and secular;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(g)     the ability of the parent to provide for the child's emotional, psychological, cultural and environmental development;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(h)     the mental and physical health and moral fitness of the parent;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(i)      the stability or otherwise of the child's existing environment, having regard to the desirability of maintaining the status<i> quo</i>;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(j)      the desirability or otherwise of keeping siblings together;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(k)     the child's preference, if the Court is satisfied that in the particular circumstances the child's preference should be taken into consideration;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(l)      the desirability or otherwise of applying the doctrine of same-sex matching; and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(m)    any other factor which is relevant to the particular case with which the Court is concerned.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> took into account the strained relationship between the appellant and the perpetual minor, evident from emails exchanged between them.  On the same note, the appellant also confessed that there was friction between her and the perpertual minor. There is therefore no compatibility between the appellant and the perpertual minor. It would therefore be against the best interests of the perpertual minor to place him in the custody of a parent with whom he has a hostile relationship.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo </i>considered that the perpertual minor is male and the appellant female.  Although this should not ordinarily matter, evidence led established that the perpetual minor needs assistance in dressing himself starting from the first garment he has to wear.  The inevitable question arising from this is whether the appellant can give him that assistance in view of the age of the perpertual minor and his sex.  It is my considered view that the doctrine of same-sex matching is applicable in these circumstances. According to the best interests of the perpetual minor, it is important that he be given this essential assistance by a male he is close to.  It would, in my view, be inappropriate to award the appellant custody of the perpetual minor in these circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The record of proceedings establishes that Anton, the perpetual minor’s twin brother who stays with the first respondent, assists Julian to dress up.  Awarding custody to the appellant would result in separating the perpetual minor from his twin brother and would entail the appellant taking over  Anton’s role in the life of the perpertual minor. Separating minors from siblings is undesirable though it can be done under exceptional circumstances.  The record establishes that Anton’s relationship with the appellant is more strained compared to that of the appellant and the perpetual minor.  He is unlikely to agree to go and stay with the appellant. He, being an adult,cannot be forced to live with the appellant if she is awarded custody of Julian.  In <i>casu</i>, taking into cognisance the pivotal role Anton plays in the perpetual minor’s life it is, in my view, in the best interest of the perpetual minor that he is not separated from his twin brother. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Evidence on record establishes that the first respondent is a better custodian parent than the appellant.  The appellant herself commented on his ability to switch from business to family affairs.  The record shows that the first respondent has a good relationship with the perpetual minor as compared to the appellant.  As already said there is no compatibility between the appellant and the perpetual minor.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> interviewed the perpetual minor after which it granted custody to the first respondent.  This indicates the minor’s preference as a consideration to his best interests. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The record establishes that the appellant suffers from temporal lobe epilepsy which she and her doctor said triggers her outbursts of anger which affects her relationship with members of her family. Dr Chibanda, testifying for the appellant, told the court <i>a quo</i> that the condition can be supressed by taking medication. However, the appellant has been under treatment for some time but there is no evidence that she has overcome the ailment. The appellant admitted to smoking marijuana which the doctor said complicates her condition. According to the appellant and the doctor, it is that ailment that caused her outbursts and strained relationships with the children and others. The doctor testified that the appellant might have to take medication for life. These circumstances do not make her a suitable custodian of the perpetual minor. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the foregoing, it is my view that custody should remain with the first respondent taking into account the best interests of the perpetual minor. In the event of there being changes in appellant’s circumstances, she can apply for variation of the custody order as the court <i>a quo’s</i> decision is based on the current circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the above, it is my view that the court <i>a quo</i> took into consideration the best interests of the perpetual minor in awarding custody to the first respondent. The court <i>a quo</i>’s decision in that regard is unassailable and I respectfully associate myself with it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting absolution from the instance against part of the appellant’s claims.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo </i>granted the first respondent absolution from the instance in respect of the appellant’s claims, to a share in the South African properties namely <i>94 Matumi Sands, Lonehill (Pty) Ltd, 112 Matumi Sands, Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and 182 Shingara (Pty) Ltd</i> as well as a number of Zimbabwean assets.  The court <i>a quo</i> stated :</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“…I have also alluded to the various companies in which the plaintiff did not lay any claim but were alleged to be owned by the defendant and that I should consider that fact in the distribution of the assets of the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">These include:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ul><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Telehec Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Natsbury Trading (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Bywork Intermedia </span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></u></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></u></span></span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In respect of all the above properties inclusive of the companies, I am inclined to grant absolution from the instance. <b>I have already alluded to the fact that neither the plaintiff nor the defendant have been able to place evidence before the court to show the shareholding of these companies, I have dealt at length with the evidence of the parties and explained why I believed the defendant is an untruthful and incredible witness. I, however, hold the view that the plaintiff has not been able to make out a case in respect of these assets. I am also persuaded to grant absolution from the instance because of the fact that as the trial commenced but before its completion Stir Crazy was placed under provisional liquidation and is currently under liquidation… </b>Absolution from the instance would enable the plaintiff, if she so desires to deal with the defendant’s interests in Stir Crazy and other related companies after a full public inquiry… The only viable and just option is to leave the door open for the plaintiff to approach the court after a decree of divorce is granted, <b>if she wishes, with sufficient evidence on the shareholding of both the trading and property-owning companies in Zimbabwe and South Africa… </b>Since evidence had been led in respect of these companies I cannot leave the matter hanging but to grant absolution from the instance...” (emphasis added)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent made offers to the appellant in respect of some of the properties included in the order of absolution from the instance and disclosed his shareholding in some of the companies.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Evidence on record established that the first respondent offered the appellant 10 percent of the Belgravia House owned by Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, 10 per cent of Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd, 20 per cent shareholding in Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd. The first respondent further confirmed some of these offers during oral evidence before the court <i>a quo</i> where he had the following exchange with the court <i>a quo:</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“Q.    I am not worried about that document you are talking about, I am worried (sic) the list of all these companies we have dealt with. <b>You know what proof can be placed at any forum to prove ownership of a company?</b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">And yet I have offered 40 percent to her my Lord.” (</span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">emphasis added<b>)</b></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">During the same oral evidence the first respondent conceded that he owns 80 percent shares in Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, 80 percent shares in Opium Investments (Pvt) Ltd, 80 percent shares in the Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd, 50 percent shares in 112 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and 50 percent shares in 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is trite that when insufficient evidence is led when the plaintiff closes his case, or when there is insufficient evidence at the end of a full trial the court can grant the defendant absolution from the instance. Absolution from the instance in both these instances simply means the defendant is freed from being held liable under that litigation but the plaintiff remains free to pursue his/her suit against the defendant through another suit on a subsequent  occasion.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The factors to be considered in an application for absolution from the instance were discussed in the case of <i>Supreme Service Station (1969) (Pvt) Ltd v Fox &amp; Goodridge (Pvt) Ltd</i> 1971 (1) RLR 1 (A) at 5 D-E where it was held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“At the close of the case for the plaintiff, therefore, the question which arises for the consideration of the court is: is there evidence upon which a reasonable man might find for the plaintiff? The question therefore is, at the close of the case for the plaintiff, <u>was there a <i>prima facie</i> case against the defendant</u>… In other words, was there such evidence before the court upon which a reasonable man might, not should, give judgment against the defendant?” (emphasis added)</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further, in <i>United Air Charters (Pvt) Ltd v Jarman</i> 1994 (2) ZLR 341 (S)at  p 343, it was held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The test in deciding an application for absolution from the instance is well settled in this jurisdiction. A plaintiff will successfully withstand such an application if, at the close of his case, <u>there is evidence upon which a court, directing its mind reasonably to such evidence, could or might (not should or ought to) find for him</u>.” (emphasis added)</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, though absolution was granted by the court <i>a quo mero motu</i> after a full trial, the test of whether or not there was evidence to justify granting it still applies. Absolution should not be granted if there is evidence on which the court can find for the plaintiff.  Absolution from the instance can be granted by a court at the close of the case for the defendant.  That this is the position at law is confirmed by <i>Herbstein &amp; Van Winsen’s</i>, <i>The Civil Practice of The High Courts Of South Africa, Fifth Edition, Vol 1,</i> at page  924  where they say:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“Although there is no express provision in rule 39 for an order of absolution from the instance at the conclusion of the whole case, the practise to grant absolution when a plaintiff has not established the facts in support of his case to the satisfaction of the court, has been extended to cases in which evidence for the defendant had also been given.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In this case there was an offer upon  which a court, exercising its mind reasonably, could find for the appellant. The offers made by the first respondent to the appellant are sufficient  evidence to justify such a finding. When these offers were made, it became apparent  that what was offerred could be awarded to the appellant.  It also became clear that the  appellant had a case against the respondent in respect of the offered assets and that absolution from the instance could not be granted in cases where there was evidence of first respondent’s ownership of shares in companies the appellant had made claims against.  While it is not permissible to claim distribution of assets of companies, it is permissible to claim shares owned by a spouse in a company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">An offer is a form of an admission. The thing offered need not be proved by leading evidence.  In <i>Mining Industry Pension Fund v DAB Marketing (Pvt) Ltd</i> SC 25/12 at pages 8-9,it was held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“A formal admission made in pleadings cannot be ignored by the Court before whom it is made. Unless withdrawn, it prevents the leading of any further evidence to prove or disprove the admitted facts. It becomes conclusive of the issue or facts admitted. Thus where liability in full, as<i> in casu</i>, is admitted, no evidence is permissible to prove or disprove the defendant’s admitted liability.  The importance of the admission is that it is thus seen as limiting or curtailing the procedures before the Court in that where it is not withdrawn, it is binding on the Court and the Court cannot allow any party to lead or call for evidence to prove the facts that have been admitted.” See also <i>Rance v Union Mercantile Co Ltd</i> 1922 AD 312 <i>Gordon v Tarnow</i> 1947 (3) SA 525 (AD;<i> Van Deventer v de Villiers</i> 1953 (4) SA 72 (C);<i> Moresby-White v Moresby-White </i>1972 (1) RLR 199 (AD) at 203E-H; 1972 (3) SA 222 (RAD) at 224; <i>DD Transport (Private) Limited v Abbot</i> 1988 (2) ZLR 98 and <i>Liquidator of M &amp; C Holdings</i> (<i>Pty</i>) <i>Ltd v Guard Alert</i> (<i>Pty</i>) <i>Ltd</i> 1993 (2) ZLR 299 (HC).”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the above, I find that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting absolution from the instance when the respondent had made offers to settle in respect of some of the companies’ and when there was evidence of first respondent’s shareholding in some companies which could be used to distribute those shares between the parties.  It was not correct for it to hold that the appellant had failed to prove her case in properties in respect of which the first respondent had made offers and there was evidence of the first respondent’s shareholding.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo’s</i> decision on the affected assets should be set aside as it was premised on a misdirection. As there is evidence on record in the form of the first respondent’s offer to the appellant and the first respondent’s admitted ownership of shares in those companies, this Court is able to distribute the assets of the parties in respect of which offers were made.  This Court can  distribute between the parties assets and shareholdings offered by the first respondent and his admitted shareholding in the stated companies.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In respect of Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, the court <i>a quo</i> granted absolution because it had, while the trial was in progress, been placed under provisional liquidation and was subsequently placed under liquidation.  In my view the court <i>a quo</i> correctly granted absolution from the instance inspite of the first respondent having led evidence to the effect that he held 80 percent of that company’s shares and had offered to the appellant 10 percent of a property owned by it as well as 20 percent of his shareholding in it, because liquidation placed it under the control of a Liquidator who was entitled to make decisions in respect of that company. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Distributing assets of a company in liquidation would be contrary to the provisions of the then s 213 of the Companies Act [<i>Chapter 24:03</i>] which provided as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:90px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-31.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<b>213 Action stayed and avoidance of certain attachments, executions and dispositions and alteration of status</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify; text-indent:4.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   In a winding up by the court—</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify; text-indent:4.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:132px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>a</i>)    no action or proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company except by leave of the court and subject to such terms as the court may impose;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:132px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>b</i>)    any attachment or execution put in force against the assets of the company after the commencement of the winding up shall be void;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:138px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-31.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>c</i>)   every disposition of the property, including rights of action, of the company and every transfer of shares or alteration in the status of its members, made after the commencement of the winding up, shall, unless the court otherwise orders, be void.”  </span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(emphasis added)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:138px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-31.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> was therefore correct when it said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“I am also persuaded to grant absolution from the instance because of the fact that as the trial commenced but before its completion Stir Crazy was placed under provisional liquidation and is currently under liquidation”…</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> therefore correctly granted absolution from the instance against the appellant’s claim on shares and assets owned by Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd. It also correctly ordered absolution from the instance in respect of properties where no offers had been made and in respect of companies in which there was no evidence of the parties’ shareholding.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No 182 Shingara should remain on the list of properties against which absolution from the instance was granted because it is alleged to belong to a third party (Murray the parties’ first child). It can therefore only be distributed between the parties if it is proved to be an asset of the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the appellant is entitled to claim her inheritance money from the first respondent.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant contends that she advanced a loan of €10 400 which was part of her inheritance to the first respondent through a company called Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd.  She claimed the money from the first respondent alleging that the aforementioned company was his <i>alter ego</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent disputed that he borrowed the money in his personal capacity and argued that the loan was advanced to Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd hence the appellant cannot seek to recover this money pursuant to s 7(1)(a) of the Matrimonial Causes Act but has to claim it as a debt owed by Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant did not dispute this clear position of the law. In his submissions before us, Mr <i>Mpofu</i> for the appellant, did not persist with this ground of appeal. He infact submitted that the value of the claim was not worth pursuing as it has been affected by this Court’s decision in <i>Zambezi Gas Limited v NR Barber (Pvt) Ltd &amp; Another</i>  SC 3/20.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The evidence on record does not prove that Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd was an <i>alter ego</i> of the first respondent.  In evidence the appellant claimed that she used to hold 49 percent shares in that company.  It is trite that a company duly incorporated is a separate legal entity endowed with its own legal personality. The acts of a company are attributable to it, and not to any one else, as a company is a separate legal <i>persona </i>with a separate existence from its shareholders.  It can sue or be sued in its own right.  See <i>Salomon</i> v <i>Salomon &amp; Co Ltd </i> [1897] AC 22.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">While there are instances in which the court may pierce or lift the corporate veil as held in <i>Van Niekerk v</i> <i>Van Niekerk &amp; `Ors</i> 1999 (1) ZLR 421 (S) at 427 G-H &amp; 428A, I do not believe that a case has been made for such an approach as the appellant did not give evidence in that regard. The appellant should claim her money from Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd as it is a distinct and separate legal entity which can sue and be sued in its own right.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo </i>therefore correctly granted absolution from the instance against the appellant’s claim on this issue.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred by not awarding the appellant a lump sum maintenance payment in the sum of US$100 000 which was not opposed.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In his heads Mr <i>Mpofu,</i> for the appellant, submitted that the court <i>a quo</i> erred when it did not grant the appellant’s claim for a lump sum maintenance payment which had not been opposed by the first respondent.  He submitted that because the claim had not been opposed, it is deemed to have been admitted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A reading of the record establishes that the appellant’s claim was opposed by the first respondent.  The appellant claimed it under paragraph 10.6 as “a cash amount of US$100 000”. In his plea the first respondent in para 6 said: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“Ad paragraphs 9-10, Denied . Plaintiff is put to the strict proof of her claim. Otherwise the Defendant refers to the claim in reconvention”.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In para 5.2 of his claim in reconvention, the first respondent said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“Defendant denies that the plaintiff is entitled to maintenance since she is a person of means”.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is therefore clear that the appellant’s claim for a maintence cash payment of US$100 000-00 was opposed. The court <i>a quo</i> did not therefore err when it dismissed that claim.  The claim was not proved by the appellant in her evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo </i>erred in distributing immovable properties without taking into account their values.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant contends that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in distributing some of the immovable property without taking into consideration the values testified to by the appellant.  A perusal of the record establishes that the first respondent was awarded as his sole and exclusive property, the immovable property known as No. 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare. The appellant was awarded as her sole and exclusive property,the immovable property known as No.6 Rosefriars, a Flat in Avondale, Harare. She was also awarded </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 13 Bates Street, Milton Park, Harare which is owned by Opium Investments (Pvt) Ltd in which the respondent admitted that he holds 80 percent of its shares.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I am inclined to agree with the appellant that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in proceeding to distribute immovable properties without the benefit of a valuation because one immovable property of high value can be equal to several immovable properties of lower value. It is therefore essential to distribute properties in terms of their values to achieve an equitable distribution of the assets of the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Gonye v Gonye</i> 2009 (1) ZLR 232, at 236H-237B, M<span style="font-variant:small-caps">alaba</span> JA (as he then was) remarked:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“It is important to note that a court has an extremely wide discretion regarding the granting of an order for the division, apportionment or division of the assets of the spouses in divorce proceedings. Section 7(1) of the Act provides that the court may make an order with regard to the division, apportionment or distribution of the assets of the spouses including an order that any asset be transferred from one spouse to the other. The rights claimed by the spouses under s 7(1) are dependent upon the exercise by the court of the broad discretion”.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It must however be added that the court’s wide discretion can only be exercised on the basis of the evidence led by the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In exercising its wide discretion a court must determine the proportions on which it intends to distribute the assets to the parties. It should thereafter rely on the values of the assets to ensure that each party is awarded assets equal to the ratio it will have allocated to him or her. If, for example, the court allocates each party a 50 percent share of the value of the assets of the parties, it will then use the value of the assets to distribute them at the determined ratio.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is settled law that, in matters which involve the exercise of discretion by a lower court, the appellate court should not be quick to interfere with such an order. It can only do so in extraordinary circumstances where there is evidence of gross misdirection, unreasonableness and illogicality. The position was enunciated in the case of <i>Barros &amp; Anor v Chimphonda </i>1999 (1) ZLR 58 (S) at 62G-63A<b>, </b>where the court stated as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">These grounds are firmly entrenched. It is not enough that the appellate court considers that if it had been in the position of the primary court, it would have taken a different course. <b>It must appear that some error has been made in exercising the discretion. If the primary court acts upon a wrong principle, if it allows extraneous or irrelevant matters to guide or affect it, if it does not take into account some relevant consideration then, its determination should be reviewed and the appellate court may exercise its own discretion in substitution provided always it has the materials for doing so. </b>In short, this Court is not imbued with the same broad discretion as enjoyed by the Trial Court.” See also <i>The Civil Practice</i> <i>of the Supreme Court of South Africa (Herbstain and van Winsen</i>) 4th ed by L Van Winson, AC Cilliers and C Loots at pages 918-9<b>, </b><i>TjospomieBoedey (Pvt) Ltd v Drakensberg Bottliers</i><i> (Pvt) Ltd &amp; Anor 1989 (4)SA 31(T) at 40A-J</i> and <i>Ex-parte Neethling &amp; Anor</i><i> 1951(4)SA 331A</i>.” (emphasis added)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is my respectful view that overlooking the values of properties in the distribution of matrimonial property is an improper exercise of discretion which warrants interference by  this Court.  This is because it goes against the principle of equitable distribution upon divorce envisaged in the Constitution and the Matrimonial Causes Act .</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Constitution under s 26 (c) and (d)  provides that the State must ensure that there is equality of rights and obligations of spouses during marriage and at its dissolution and in the event of dissolution, whether through death or divorce, provision must be made for the necessary protection of spouses. This means there must be a fair division and distribution of property which is just and equitable in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The division and distribution of assets of the spouses at divorce is governed by s 7 (1) (a) of the Matrimonial Causes Act.  It is trite that in matters involving the distribution of property, the court has to exercise its discretion to reach a decision which can be deemed to be a just and equitable distribution between the parties. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Case law authorities, in construing the provisions of s 7 as a whole, refer to the need to achieve an equitable distribution of the assets of the spouses consequent upon the grant of a decree of divorce.  Equitable distribution does not mean equal division but a fair division in relation to the circumstances of the case.  The court may consider such factors as the extent of a party’s contribution to the accumulation of the property, the market and emotional value of the assets, the duration of the marriage, the economic consequences of the distribution, the parties' needs and any other factors relevant to an equitable outcome.  Fairness is the prevailing guideline the court must use.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Chombo v Chombo</i> SC 41/18 at p 8, commenting on the role of values of property in the distribution of matrimonial assets the court held:                   </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“…In terms of s 7 (4) (f), the court is entitled to consider the value of ‘any benefit’ a spouse will lose on divorce in distributing the matrimonial property of the spouses. <u>The court a<i> quo</i> failed to consider and distribute the value </u>of the benefits which flow from a registered long lease which confers real rights. <u>It is the value of those benefits and advantages which are distributable in terms of s 7(4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act</u>…”( emphasis added)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, it is my respectful view that the court <i>a quo</i> erred by improperly exercising its discretion without taking into consideration the values of the properties it distributed.   It is important to note that shares of different companies cannot be of the same value hence the need to value all shares where more than one company is involved, to enable the court to effect an equitable distribution of the assets of the parties. What is required is a fair distribution of the shares.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This Court can exercise its own discretion in view of the misdirections of the court <i>a quo</i> as there is evidence it can exercise its discretion on the issues. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">According to the report by MAWADZE J the only properties left are No. 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant, Harare Zimbabwe, the Belgravia House, Harare owned by Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, (which is also still encumbered and is affected by the liquidation of the company), No. 6 Rosefrias, Avondale, Harare, No. 13 Bates Street, Milton Park, Harare owned by Opium Investments (Pvt) Ltd and is still encumbered and No. 182 Shingara in South Africa. According to evidence on record No 182 Shingara is alleged to be owned by Murray,  the parties’ first born child. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As already indicated properties owned by companies in which the spouses have interests whose shareholding has not been disclosed, can not be distributed in terms of s 7 (1) (a) of the Matrimonial Causes Act which authorises the distribution of assets of the parties. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is therefore not possible for this Court to distribute the houses owned by companies in which the parties’ shareholding is unknown. In view of the court <i>a quo</i>’s distribution of the assets of the parties without taking into consideration their values, the affected orders must be set aside and substituted with orders distributing their shares in companies where the parties’ shareholding’ in the companies is on record.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This will however not affect No. 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant in which it has become clear that the parties had a half share each.  It will also not affect the order of the Court <i>a quo</i> that the respondent transfer all his shares in Opium Investments (Pvt) Ltd which owns No 13 Bates Street Milton Park as the distribution of shares owned by one of the parties is legally competent.  It is also lawful to order the transfer of a spouses’propety to the other spouse.  The award of No 6 Rosefriers which is an asset of the parties not owned by any of their companies will also not be affected.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 6 Northwood Rise Mount Pleasant, Harare, is no longer fully available because the first respondent caused the sale of his half share in it.  A half share of this property now belongs to Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd the second respondent under Deed No. 909/2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Mpofu</i>, for the appellant, in his additional heads, urged this Court to award the whole property to the appellant who intends to thereafter litigate over the respondent’s sold half share in the High Court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is my view that the issue of the said half share should be left to the appellant to take whatever action she deems appropriate as this Court cannot, on appeal, make a decision on an issue the court <i>a quo</i> did not consider as it was not raised before it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> awarded the matrimonial home to the first respondent because it had granted him custody of the perpetual minor (Julian).  It was therefore for the convenience of the perpetual minor that the matrimonial home was awarded to him.  The circumstances have changed.  The minor was taken out of the country and no longer needs the use of that house.  The first respondent and the rest of the family also left the matrimonial home and now live in South Africa.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent demonstrated lack of interest in that property because inspite of his apparent means, he did not save his half share in it from being sold in execution.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He sold two South African properties No 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and No 112 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd in each of which he held 50 percent of the shares,  when their distribution was pending before the court <i>a quo</i> as they were part of the appellant’s claim.  He, in defiance of the court <i>a quo’s</i> order, took the household property which had been awarded to the appellant to South Africa without her knowledge or consent.  He clearly demonstrated an intention to frustrate the distribution of their assets by the courts.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In view of the circumstances discussed above, the respondent’s unlawful and contemptuous interference with court processes and orders does not entitle him to retain the appellant’s half share in No 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant.  The appellant’s appeal should succeed in part in respect of the remaining half share of that property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The report by MAWADZE J proves that the first respondent has resorted to self-help. He has made it impossible for the court to effect an equitable distribution of their property.  He sold the two properties in South Africa. He has not done anything to remove encumbrances on immovable properties awarded to the appellant.  He has stripped assets of Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd by transferring US$2.8 million from it to Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It must be emphasised that, where a spouse acts in contempt of court orders distributing their assets, hides some of the assets, lies about his or her ownership of some of the property and deliberately resorts to self help, the court is entitled to award to the other spouse the remaining property proved to be assets of the spouses.  It is my view that the properties in which the first respondent has disclosed his shareholding should be awarded to the appellant on the basis of his ownership of those shares.  It is also important to note that the first respondent’s sale and stripping of assets during the pendency of this appeal in defiance of the court <i>a quo’s</i> order  entitles the appellant to compensation for the loses she has suffered as a result of the respondent’s conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the circumstances of this case, the court must endeavour to do justice between the parties.  The appellant must be awarded what is left of the properties since most of them have been disposed of by the respondent.  The appellant must be awarded shares of property holding companies in respect of which the respondent’s shareholding is on record. Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd which owns the Belgravia house can not be distributed on account of it having been liquidated and there is no evidence of its current status. The appellant should be awarded the respondent’s 80 percent shares in Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd.  The respondent must remove all encumbrances on the properties awarded to the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It has been established that the respondent held 50 percent shares in No. 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and No. 112 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd.  The court <i>a quo</i> could therefore have used that evidence to distribute the shares between the parties.  The properties were sold to third parties by the respondent. The appellant is entitled to a portion of the proceeds.  The portion she is entitled to cannot be established without leading evidence on the purchase price and how it relates to the respondnet’s 50 percent shares in each property.  This Court does not therefore have material to enable it to make an order substituting the court <i>a quo</i>’s order of absolution. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is, in my view, in the interest of the appellant to uphold the court <i>a quo</i>’s order to enable her to, through subsequent litigation, pursue her interests in these properties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i>’s decision of absolution from the instance in respect of properties on which there was no evidence should be upheld. No. 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill and No. 112 Matumi Sands Lonehill should remain on the list of properties in respect of which absolution was granted for the reasons stated above. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The properties and claims to remain on the list of cases for which absolution from the instance was granted are as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 112 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">182 Shingara (Pty) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Telehic Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Natsbury Trading (Pvt) Ltd and</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s claim of  £10 400.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DISPOSITION</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I find that the appellant’s appeal has merit on the following issues.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:102px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-40.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a).   the respondent’s lack of the right of audience due to his being in contempt of court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-40.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">      (b).   the erroneous granting of absolution from the instance by the court <i>a quo</i> in respect of properties in respect of which the first respondent had made offers and properties on which the first respondent had given evidence on his shareholding in specified companies,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c). the court <i>a quo’s </i>distribution of properties without taking into consideration their values and the parties shareholding in some companies.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-45.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> correctly found that the appellant should claim her inheritance money from the company she loaned it to.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> correctly granted custody of the perpetual minor to the first respondent as this was in the best interests of the perpetual minor. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant’s claim for a once-off payment of maintenance in the sum of US$100 000-00 was correctly dismissed by the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant is entitled to an award of costs on the higher scale against the respondent, who is responsible for the prolonged hearing of the appeal due to his contempt of court, which resulted in an enquiry by MAWADZE J being ordered and the re-hearing of the parties in respect of his having caused the sale of his half share of the matrimonial home. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is accordingly ordered as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appeal against the court <i>a quo’s </i>decision on the perpetual minor’s custody, the appellant’s claim for inheritance money she loaned to Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd from the first respondent and her claim for a lump sum maintenance payment of USD$100 000-00, be and is hereby dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appeal against the awarding of the matrimonial home to the respondent partially succeeds to the following extent:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Paragraph 8 of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order be and is hereby set aside and is substituted as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“8. The plaintiff’s half share in the matrimonial home </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No. 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">be and is hereby awarded to the plaintiff”.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appeal against the court <i>a quo</i>’s order of absolution from the instance on the distribution of immovable properties partially succeeds to the following extent:</span></span></span></span></span></span> <ol><li style="margin-left:14px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:108.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Paragraph 12 (d) of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order is amended by the deletion there from of the words   “Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd”.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-54.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:108.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">         3.2   “The respondent shall transfer his 80 percent shareholding in the “Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd” to the plaintiff and sign all relevant documents to effect transfer of his shares to the plaintiff within 30 days of this order failing which the Sheriff be and is  hereby authorised to sign such documents”.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:66px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-15.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.  The first respondent shall pay the appellant’s costs at the legal practitioner and client scale.        </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                        </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GARWE JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">              :           I agree</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GOWORA JA           </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">:           I agree</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Atherstone&amp; Cook</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, appellant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Gill, Godlonton&amp;Gerrans</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">,respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-674cf0fe731f5b95b231a45e93dbaebb2dca1fc627fca8e0a11dadf64aebc91a"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p style="margin-left:336px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Judgment No. SC 130 /21</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:384px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    Civil Appeal No. SC 448/14</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">REPORTABLE (119)</span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">PHILIPPA     ANN    COUMBIS</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(1)     RONALD    JOHN     COUMBIS</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(2)    DOVES     FUNERAL     ASSURANCE (PRIVATE) LIMITED </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(On The Purchase of a Half Share of the Matrimonial Home).</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUPREME COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GARWE JA, GOWORA JA &amp; UCHENA JA</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE,  10 OCTOBER 2016, 19 JUNE 2017, </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">23 JANUARY 2018, 23 JANUARY 2020, </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">24 JUNE 2020 &amp; 21 OCTOBER 2021</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Mpofu </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">with<i> </i>Mr<i> T.L Mapuranga</i>, for the appellant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">D. Tivadar</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the respondent for the first respondent</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">l.. T Musekiwa, for the second respondent</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">UCHENA JA:           </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This is an appeal and cross-appeal against parts of the judgment of the High Court dated 4 September 2014 granting a decree of divorce and ancillary relief for and against the appellant (the plaintiff in the court <i>a quo </i>and the appellant in this appeal<i>)</i> and  the cross-appellant (the defendant in the court <i>a quo </i>and<i> </i>first respondent in this appeal<i>)</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FACTUAL BACKGROUND</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The facts of the case can be summarised as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 1 September 1990 the appellant and the first<sup> </sup>respondent were married in terms of the then Marriages Act [<i>Chapter 37</i>]. During the subsistence of the marriage, the parties were blessed with three children namely Murray John Coumbis, who was already an adult at the commencement of divorce proceedings, and the twins Julian Ronald Coumbis and Anton Phillip Coumbis.  Julian and Anton were minors when divorce proceedings were instituted. They are now adults but Julian remains a perpertual minor on account of his mental incapacity.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 5 August 2010, the appellant instituted divorce proceedings against the first respondent.  As Julian and Anton were minors the appellant claimed their custody and maintenance. She also claimed personal maintenance and a share of the assets of the parties.  The appellant also claimed €10 400 from the respondent which she had advanced as a loan to Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, a family business.  She contended that the money was part of her inheritance.  She claimed to have loaned it to the first respondent through Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd.  She claimed the money from him alleging that the aforementioned company was an <i>alter ego </i>of the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent opposed the appellant’s claims and made a claim in reconvention wherein he claimed the custody of the minor children and their maintenance. He contested the appellant’s claim for personal maintenance and matrimonial property. He alleged that some of the properties claimed by the appellant did not form part of their matrimonial estate. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The matter proceeded to a joint pre-trial conference where the following issues were identified and referred to trial:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“a.   The custody of Julian and Anton;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">b.    What amount of maintenance was to be paid to the plaintiff if custody is awarded to her;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">c.     Whether the plaintiff could be awarded the right to reside in the matrimonial home until both children became self-supporting;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">d.    Whether the defendant was obliged to pay personal maintenance to the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">e.    Which properties constituted the matrimonial estate</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">f.     What appropriate order the High Court was supposed to make for the sharing of property.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">PROCEEDINGS IN THE HIGH COURT</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">When the trial commenced, Julian and Anton were no longer minors. However, the parties agreed that Julian was to be treated as a perpetual minor due to his mental incapacity. The parties’ claim for custody and maintenance, therefore, only related to Julian. The parties adduced a lot of documentary evidence to support their respective claims.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">During examination-in-chief, the appellant admitted that she had a broken relationship with Julian. She admitted that she had exchanged nasty emails with him. The appellant also admitted to smoking marijuana. The fact that she smokes marijuana was confirmed by Dr Chibanda who pointed out its adverse effect on her health and especially on her recovery from temporal lobe epilepsy. After hearing the evidence, the judge <i>a quo </i>interviewed Julian in his chambers.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> found that Julian was closer to the first respondent and took into consideration the fact that the two had been staying together after the parties’ separation. It also found that the appellant needed to start a new life independent from the first respondent but still needed financial assistance to cushion her from the effects of the divorce.  The court <i>a quo </i>found that the first respondent was dishonest and not credible in respect of evidence relating to the matrimonial estate.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">          The order granted by the court <i>a quo, </i>quoted<i> verbatim, </i> reads as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“Accordingly it is ordered as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A decree of divorce be and is hereby granted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Custody of the perpetual minor child Julian Ronald Coumbis, born on 3 July 1994 be and is hereby awarded to the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff be and is hereby granted reasonable access rights to the said perpetual minor child which shall be exercised as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span> <ol><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">She shall have the right to stay with the said perpetual minor child on alternate weekends.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">She shall have the perpetual minor child on any other special occasions including but not limited to each alternate Easter holidays and Christmas holidays.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall solely be responsible for the upkeep of the said perpetual minor child.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall pay maintenance in respect of the plaintiff in the sum of US$2000-00 per month as per the order granted by the Magistrate’s Court for a period of six (6) months from the date of granting of this order inclusive of the month of September 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:46px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Payments shall be made directly into the plaintiff’s Bank Account whose details shall be provided forthwith to the defendant by the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff is awarded as her sole and exclusive property all household furniture, contents and effects inclusive of all her personal items and jewellery, at the matrimonial house No 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant Harare, excluding the TV set, dinning suite and lounge suite which are awarded to the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="7"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall transfer into the plaintiff’s name a motor vehicle Nissan Navara Registration Number ABD 6847 presently being used by the plaintiff, at his sole cost within thirty (30) days of the grant of this order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant is awarded as his sole and exclusive property, immovable property known as No 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant Harare currently registered in the names of the plaintiff and the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall transfer against payment by him of all transfer costs the said property into his names and the plaintiff shall sign all relevant papers to effect such transfer within 30 days of being requested, failure of which the Sheriff shall sign all the documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall be solely responsible for any encumberances, mortgages or other obligations duly existing or registered by law over the said property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="9"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall transfer all shares of OPIUM INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD, a property owning company whose sole asset is an immovable property known as No. 13 Bates Street Milton Park Harare, to the plaintiff within thirty (30) days of the grant of this order at his cost.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:34px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall be solely responsible for any encumberancies or obligations duly existing or duly registered by law over the said property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:34px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall sign all the relevant documents to effect such transfer failure of which the Sheriff is authorised to sign all such documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="10"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff is awarded as her sole and exclusive property, an immovable property known as No 6 Rosefriars, Avondale Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol><li style="margin-left:46px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff shall transfer against payment by her of all transfer costs the rights title and interest in the said property No. 6 Rosefriars, Avondale Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall within thirty (30)days of being requested to sign all relevant documents to effect such transfer, failure of which the Sheriff is authorised to sign all such documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="11"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff’s claim for cash in the sum of US$100 000-00 be and is hereby dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:84px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="margin-left:44px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Absolution from the instance be and is hereby granted in respect of the distribution of the following assets:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">112 Matumi Sands, Lonehill (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">182 Shingara (Pty) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Theright Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Telehic Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="tab-stops:4.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Natsbury Trading (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:74px; text-align:justify" value="1"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s claim of £10 400</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="13"><li style="margin-left:50px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant shall bear the costs of suit.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Aggrieved by parts of the court <i>a quo</i>’s decision, the appellant and the first respondent noted the present appeal and cross-appeal respectively.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GROUNDS OF APPEAL</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        The appeal involved an appeal and a cross-appeal, but the cross-appeal was withdrawn during the hearing of the appeal.The appellant’s grounds of appeal attack the court <i>a quo’s</i> decision on the following issues:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">custody and maintenance of Julian the perpetual minor, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">her claim for inheritance money loaned to a company from the respondent,</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the propriety or otherwise of the decision handed down by the court <i>a quo </i>concerning the distribution of the assets of the parties, </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">her claim for a lump sum maintenance payment in the sum of US$100 000-00</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the granting of absolution from the instance <i>mero motu </i>by the court <i>a quo </i>at the end of the defence case, and</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">whether or not the respondent should be heard in view of his contemptuous conduct against proceedings in this Court, the court <i>a quo</i> and its orders.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPLICATION BY THE APPELLANT</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In September 2018, the appellant made an application to adduce further evidence to prove that the respondent had, pending the determination of the appeal, interfered with and defied the High Court’s orders.  We, in terms of s 22 (1) (b) (ii) and (v) of the Supreme Court Act [<i>Chapter 7:13</i>], ordered that the matter be remitted to MAWADZE J (the trial judge), for him to conduct an enquiry into the appellant’s allegations and submit a report to us.  On 3 April 2019, after holding an enquiry in compliance with our order, MAWADZE J submitted to us his report in which he made the following factual findings:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FINDINGS OF FACT MADE BY MAWADZE J<i>.</i></span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-45.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:45.0pt 72.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   “1(a)   The perpetual minor Julian Ronald Coumbis (born on 3 July 1994) was removed from Zimbabwe by the respondent and taken to South Africa in 2013 well before the judgment of the court on 4 September 2014. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)   The respondent has not placed any credible evidence before this Court for such conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)    Julian remains in South Africa to date.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)  The appellant Philippa has not been able to exercise any access rights in   respect of Julian (the perpetual minor) as awarded to her in terms of para 3 of this Court’s order</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:102px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-45.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    2. (a)    The respondent sold two immovable properties in South Africa being No. 94 Matumi Sands and No. 112 Matumi Sands and transferred them to third parties.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:94.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)   The only available immovable property in South Africa is No. 182 Shingara against which the appellant successfully placed a caveat.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:114px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   3. The respondent removed all movable household goods which had been awarded to the appellant Philippa in terms of para 6 of this Court’s order from No. 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare and took them to South Africa without the appellant’s knowledge or consent. The respondent has not explained his conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:66px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-13.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   4. The motor vehicle, a Nissan Navara Registration Number ABD 6847 awarded to the appellant Philippa in terms of para 7 of this Court’s order was taken by the Vehicle Theft Squad as it was deemed to be subject to criminal investigations for which the respondent is allegedly accountable.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:66px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-13.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   5. The respondent has not done anything to remove the encumbrances on immovable properties either awarded to him or the appellant as per this Court’s order.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    6. After the order of this Court the respondent transferred about USD$2.8 million from Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd to Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    7. The respondent has not complied with the maintenance order granted in favour of the appellant Phillipa in terms of para 5 of this Court’s order and has not paid a single cent.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    8. Lastly, the following assets are still available;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:126px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-22.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a) No. 6 Northwood Rise Mt Pleasant, Harare Zimbabwe but is still encumbered.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:144px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)  Belgravia House, Harare but is still encumbered.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)   No. 6 Rosefrias, Avondale, Harare Zimbabwe</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:132px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)   No. 13 Bates Street, Milton Park, Harare but is still encumbered.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(e)   No. 182 Shingara in South Africa.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPELLANT’S SUBMISSIONS ON APPEAL</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In submissions before this Court, counsel for the appellant, Mr <i>Mpofu,</i> argued that the report to the Supreme Court following due inquiry by M<span style="font-variant:small-caps">awadze</span> J dated 3 April 2019 confirmed that the first respondent was in contempt of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order. He further submitted that such disobedience went to the root of the matter. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Mpofu </i>further<i> </i>submitted that the court <i>a quo</i>’s decision on custody was influenced by the first respondent’s alienation of Julian against the appellant and that the decision does not promote a bond between the appellant and the perpetual minor.  Counsel for the appellant submitted that from 4 September 2014 to the last date of the hearing, the appellant had not enjoyed access to the perpetual minor because he had been removed from the jurisdiction of this court. He submitted that it was in the best interests of the perpetual minor that he be in the custody of the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In respect of the court <i>a quo </i>granting the first respondent absolution from the instance <i>mero motu</i>, counsel for the appellant submitted that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in view of the fact that the first respondent had made offers which were equivalent to an admission.  He also submitted that the first respondent had given evidence of his shareholding in <i>some</i> of the companies which could have enabled the court <i>a quo</i> to distribute those shares between the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>Mpofu</i> submitted that the distribution of the matrimonial assets was limited to three properties.  He contended that evidence led before the court <i>a quo</i> on these assets established that the assets belonged to companies owned by the parties.  He further submitted that the properties had been encumbered by the first respondent and consequently the appellant was disabled from acquiring any title in them inspite of their having been awarded to her by the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In relation to the appellant’s inheritance funds loaned to Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, Mr <i>Mpofu</i> argued that the latter, being the respondent’s <i>alter ego,</i> they had to be returned to the appellant by the first respondent.  He prayed that the appeal succeeds with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE FIRST RESPONDENT’S SUBMISSIONS ON APPEAL</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr<i>. Tivadar</i>, for the first respondent, submitted that even though the first respondent had breached the order of the court <i>a quo</i>, he had a right to be heard in terms of  s 69 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe 2013 (the Constitution). Counsel for the first respondent argued that it was in the best interest of the perpetual minor that the first respondent be heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He contended that, even if it was found that the first respondent had no right of audience before this court, there were no documents relating to the companies proving that the court <i>a quo</i> was handicapped in making its determination.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Regarding the issue of the court <i>a quo</i> granting absolution from the instance <i>mero motu,</i> Mr <i>Tivadar </i>argued that the court <i>a quo </i>came to that conclusion because there was no evidence on the ownership of the companies as the appellant failed to present it to the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In concluding his submissions, Mr Tivadar submitted that the first respondent was withdrawing his cross-appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPELLANT’S RESPONSE</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, counsel for the appellant contended that the enjoyment of the constitutional right to be heard comes with an obligation to obey court orders. He argued that the first respondent is in court to protect something yet he disobeys court orders.  Counsel further argued that the court has inherent jurisdiction in terms of s 176 of the Constitution to determine who can or cannot be heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He submitted that the perpetual minor’s best interests remained with the court as the first respondent’s contempt disentitles him from saying anything that benefits him. Counsel for the appellant submitted that an appellate court does not only deal with the direct dictates of the judgment but also deals with its effects.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FURTHER SUBMISSIONS</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">By letter dated 31 January 2020, Musekiwa and Associates Legal Practitioners for Doves Funeral Assuarance (Pvt) Ltd, informed the Registrar of this Court that its client had bought a half share of No 6 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(the matrimonial home) from a sale in execution conducted by the Sheriff and that that half share of the property had been transferred to their client on 20 February 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        As a result of this information, which had not been placed before us when we heard the appeal on 23 January 2020, parties were invited to appear before us on 24 June 2020 to give them an opportunity to address us on this issue. At that hearing we granted the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“IT IS ORDERED BY CONSENT THAT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Doves Funeral Assurance be and is hereby joined as a party to these proceedings as 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondent with Ronald John Coumbis becoming the 1<sup>st</sup> Respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Musekiwa for Doves Funeral Assurance is to avail documentation confirming the transfer of the half share in the property to itself and file heads of argument in connection therewith by the 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020 and serve the same immediately on the appellant and first respondents’legal practitioners.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Advocate Mpofu is to file additional heads of argument in response to the heads of argument filed by Doves Funeral Assurance by Friday 3<sup>rd</sup> July 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:78px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Ndlovu, for the 1<sup>st</sup> Respondent Ronald John Coumbis is to file his additional heads of argument if any, by Wednesday 8 July 2020.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In his additional heads of argument Mr <i>Mpofu</i>, for the appellant, submitted that the matrimonial home which was jointly owned by the appellant and the first respondent be awarded to the appellant who will thereafter institute proceedings in the High Court to claim back the half share sold to Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd.  He submitted that Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd took a risk when it bought the half share without the consent of the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        The first respondent, whose conduct caused the sale of his half share to Doves Funeral Assurance (Pvt) Ltd, did not file additional heads.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In their heads Musekiwa &amp; Associates, for Doves Funeral Assuarance (Pvt) Ltd,  submitted that it bought the respondent’s half share through the Sheriff’s sale in execution after due notice had been given to the appellant.  They submitted that the half share is no longer part of the appellant and first respondent’s matrimonial assets and is no longer available for distribution to either of them.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ISSUES FOR DETERMINATION BY THIS COURT</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant raised several grounds of appeal but the material issues for determination are as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the first respondent should be heard in view    of his contempt of proceedings of the court<i> a quo </i>and its orders and proceedings before this Court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in awarding custody of Julian to the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting absolution from the instance against part of the appellant’s claims.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the appellant is entitled to claim her monetary inheritance from the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo </i>erred in distributing the immovable property without taking into account the value of the properties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the distribution of the immovable property was fair.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the appellant’s claim for a lump sum maintenance payment in the sum of US$100 000-00 was correctly dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">APPLICATION OF THE LAW TO THE FACTS</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the first respondent should be heard in view of his contempt of this Court and court <i>a quo’s </i>proceedings and the orders of the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAWADZE J, in his report subsequent to the remittal of the matter for him to inquire into the first respondent’s alleged contempt against its orders, found that the perpetual minor who the appellant was granted access to, had been removed from Zimbabwe and taken to South Africa without the appellant’s knowledge or consent resulting in the appellant not being able to exercise her rights of access.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He also found that all movable household goods at No. 6 Northwood Rise, Mt Pleasant, Harare awarded to the appellant in terms of para 6 of the court <i>a quo’s</i> order had been removed from the house by the first respondent and taken to South Africa without the appellant’s knowledge or consent. The first respondent did not explain his conduct.  It has also been established that a half share of No 6 Northwood Rise, Mount Pleasant the whole of which had been awarded to the first respondent but was one of the issues raised in this appeal, had been sold and transferred to Doves Funeral Assuarance (Pvt) Ltd because of the first respondent’s indebtedness which led to his half share being sold in execution.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAWADZE J also found that the first respondent had sold two immovable properties in South Africa being No. 94 Matumi Sands Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and No. 112 Matumi Sands Lonehil (Pty) Ltd in which he had fifty percent shareholdings in both and that he had thereafter transferred them to third parties without the appellant’s knowledge or consent, at a time when their distribution was pending before the court <i>a quo.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The motor vehicle, a Nissan Navara, Registration Number ABD 6847 awarded to the appellant in terms of para 7 of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order had been taken by the Vehicle Theft Squad as it was deemed to be subject to criminal investigations for which the first respondent was allegedly accountable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The judge also found that the first respondent had not done anything to remove encumbrances from immovable properties awarded to the appellant in terms of the court <i>a quo’s</i> order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He further found that the first respondent caused the transfer of USD$ 2.8 million from Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd, a company jointly owned by the parties, to Incavat (Pvt) Ltd, a company incorporated after the separation of the parties in spite of the pending appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further the first respondent had not complied with the maintenance order granted in favour of the appellant in terms of para 5 of the court <i>a quo</i>’s order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the first respondent’s contemptuous conduct, conceded by his legal practitioner, my considered view is that he has no right to be heard by this Court. It is settled law that a litigant with dirty hands cannot be entertained by the courts. Contempt of court is seriously viewed by the courts and disentitles a party from being afforded a hearing by the courts until he or she has purged the contempt.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first respondent cannot violate a court order on one hand and seek relief from the same court on the other. One cannot be allowed to do so with impunity. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is important to acknowledge the well-known canon that the Constitution is the supreme law and that the rule of law is a founding principle of our nation. The quintessence of the rule of law is this, and simply this, that where there is a law it must be complied with and when courts grant orders they must be obeyed. The Constitution under s 164 (3) provides as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<u>An order or decision of a court binds</u> the State and <u>all persons</u> and government institutions and agencies to <u>which it applies, and must be obeyed by them</u>”  (emphasis added)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>In Re: Prosecutor-General of Zimbabwe </i>on his constitutional independence and protection from direction and control CCZ 13/17 at p 13, the court made the following pertinent remarks:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The simple fact of the matter is that the applicant has not complied with the orders in question and has proffered no explanation whatsoever for such non-compliance. He has for some reason seen it fit to disregard court orders; and yet he expects this Court to overlook his wanton and cavalier nonchalance. For the applicant to refuse to obey court orders, and then to avoid answering the critical question as to why he has not, is tantamount to exhibiting flagrant contempt for this Court. This type of contempt <i>in facie curiae</i> cannot be countenanced by the Court. We have a duty to protect our processes from abuse and scandalous impunity.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The gravity and consequences of such contempt were articulately spelt out in <i>Associated Newspapers of Zimbabwe (Private) Limited </i>v<i> The Minister of State for Information and Publicity in the President’s Office &amp; Others </i>SC 20/03 at p 11<i>, </i>where the court held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The Court will not grant relief to a litigant with dirty hands in the absence of good cause being shown or until such defiance or contempt has been purged… This Court is a court of law, and as such, cannot connive at or condone the applicant’s open defiance of the law. Citizens are obliged to obey the law of the land and argue afterwards… In the absence of an explanation as to why this course was not followed, the inference of a disdain for the law becomes inescapable.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, the first respondent has shown a flagrant disregard of court proceedings of the court <i>a quo</i> and this Court<i>.</i> He has not purged his contempt nor explained his conduct. In respect of some of the terms of the court <i>a quo’s</i> orders, he remains in continuous contempt. Such conduct cannot be countenanced by this Court. It is my considered view that he has no right to be heard. Consequently the submissions made on his behalf by Mr <i>Tivadar </i>will be ignored and not be taken into account in determining this appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in awarding custody of Julian to the first respondent.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> granted custody of the perpetual minor to the first respondent.  The appellant’s complaint on appeal was that custody ought to have been awarded to her.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is trite that the awarding of custody of a minor to either of the parents by a court is governed by the best interests of the minor. Therefore the parent who will be granted custody must satisfy the requirements of the best interests of the child. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Section 81 (2) of the Constitution has codified this position and provides that, in every matter concerning a child, it is the child’s best interests that are paramount and that minor children are entitled to protection of the courts, particularly by the High Court as the upper guardian of the rights of children. Section 81 (2) and (3) reads:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:102px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-40.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:81.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(2)     A child’s best interests are paramount in every matter concerning the child.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-40.5pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">   (3)     Children are entitled to adequate protection by the courts, in particular by the High Court as their upper guardian.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This position was aptly illustrated in <i>Mackintosh (Nee Parkinson) v Mackintosh</i> SC 37/18 at p 15 para 33, where this court held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“A court, such as the court <i>a quo</i>, must always keep in mind that the interests of the minor children are always paramount.  In considering those interests, the court should not allow itself to be misled by the appearances that the parties give.  It must, in addition to any evidence given, be guided by its own experiences and sense of what is fair…” </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Cretney S M on <i>Principles of Family Law</i>,</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> (Third Edition, Sweet &amp; Maxwell, London, 1979) cited with approval in the <i>Mackintosh</i> case, <i>supra</i>, states at p 493  that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“It has traditionally been stressed that the law is not that the welfare of the child is the sole consideration.  There may, for instance, be cases where the public interest overrides the welfare of a particular child.  But the requirement to treat the child’s welfare as the ‘first and paramount’ consideration means </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">‘more than that [it] is to be treated as the top item in a list of items relevant to the matter in question.  [The words] connote a process whereby, when all the relevant facts, relationships, claims and wishes of parents, risks, choices and other circumstances are taken into account and weighed, the course to be followed will be that which is most in the interests of the child’s welfare as that term has now to be understood.  That is the first consideration because it is of first importance and the paramount consideration because it rules upon or determines the course to be followed.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>McCall v McCall</i> 1994 (3) SA 201 (C) at 204-205, the court provided a guideline which can be used in determining the best interests of the child.  It is not exhaustive but covers many factors which have been considered in many jurisdictions. It remarked thus:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In determining what is in the best interests of the child, the Court must decide which of the parents is better able to promote and ensure his physical, moral, emotional and spiritual welfare. This can be assessed by reference to certain factors or criteria which are set out hereunder, not in order of importance, and also bearing in mind that there is a measure of unavoidable overlapping and that some of the listed criteria may differ only as to nuance. The criteria are the following:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(a)     the love, affection and other emotional ties which exist between parent and child and the parent's compatibility with the child;   </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)     the capabilities, character and temperament of the parent and the impact thereof on the child's needs and desires;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)     the ability of the parent to communicate with the child and the parent's insight into, understanding of and sensitivity to the child's feelings.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)    The capacity and disposition of the parent to give the child the guidance which he requires;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(e)     the ability of the parent to provide for the basic physical needs of the child, the so-called 'creature comforts', such as food, clothing, housing and the other material needs - generally speaking, the provision of economic security;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(f)     the ability of the parent to provide for the educational well-being and security of the child, both religious and secular;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(g)     the ability of the parent to provide for the child's emotional, psychological, cultural and environmental development;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(h)     the mental and physical health and moral fitness of the parent;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(i)      the stability or otherwise of the child's existing environment, having regard to the desirability of maintaining the status<i> quo</i>;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(j)      the desirability or otherwise of keeping siblings together;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(k)     the child's preference, if the Court is satisfied that in the particular circumstances the child's preference should be taken into consideration;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(l)      the desirability or otherwise of applying the doctrine of same-sex matching; and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:108px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(m)    any other factor which is relevant to the particular case with which the Court is concerned.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> took into account the strained relationship between the appellant and the perpetual minor, evident from emails exchanged between them.  On the same note, the appellant also confessed that there was friction between her and the perpertual minor. There is therefore no compatibility between the appellant and the perpertual minor. It would therefore be against the best interests of the perpertual minor to place him in the custody of a parent with whom he has a hostile relationship.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo </i>considered that the perpertual minor is male and the appellant female.  Although this should not ordinarily matter, evidence led established that the perpetual minor needs assistance in dressing himself starting from the first garment he has to wear.  The inevitable question arising from this is whether the appellant can give him that assistance in view of the age of the perpertual minor and his sex.  It is my considered view that the doctrine of same-sex matching is applicable in these circumstances. According to the best interests of the perpetual minor, it is important that he be given this essential assistance by a male he is close to.  It would, in my view, be inappropriate to award the appellant custody of the perpetual minor in these circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The record of proceedings establishes that Anton, the perpetual minor’s twin brother who stays with the first respondent, assists Julian to dress up.  Awarding custody to the appellant would result in separating the perpetual minor from his twin brother and would entail the appellant taking over  Anton’s role in the life of the perpertual minor. Separating minors from siblings is undesirable though it can be done under exceptional circumstances.  The record establishes that Anton’s relationship with the appellant is more strained compared to that of the appellant and the perpetual minor.  He is unlikely to agree to go and stay with the appellant. He, being an adult,cannot be forced to live with the appellant if she is awarded custody of Julian.  In <i>casu</i>, taking into cognisance the pivotal role Anton plays in the perpetual minor’s life it is, in my view, in the best interest of the perpetual minor that he is not separated from his twin brother. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Evidence on record establishes that the first respondent is a better custodian parent than the appellant.  The appellant herself commented on his ability to switch from business to family affairs.  The record shows that the first respondent has a good relationship with the perpetual minor as compared to the appellant.  As already said there is no compatibility between the appellant and the perpetual minor.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> interviewed the perpetual minor after which it granted custody to the first respondent.  This indicates the minor’s preference as a consideration to his best interests. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The record establishes that the appellant suffers from temporal lobe epilepsy which she and her doctor said triggers her outbursts of anger which affects her relationship with members of her family. Dr Chibanda, testifying for the appellant, told the court <i>a quo</i> that the condition can be supressed by taking medication. However, the appellant has been under treatment for some time but there is no evidence that she has overcome the ailment. The appellant admitted to smoking marijuana which the doctor said complicates her condition. According to the appellant and the doctor, it is that ailment that caused her outbursts and strained relationships with the children and others. The doctor testified that the appellant might have to take medication for life. These circumstances do not make her a suitable custodian of the perpetual minor. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the foregoing, it is my view that custody should remain with the first respondent taking into account the best interests of the perpetual minor. In the event of there being changes in appellant’s circumstances, she can apply for variation of the custody order as the court <i>a quo’s</i> decision is based on the current circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In light of the above, it is my view that the court <i>a quo</i> took into consideration the best interests of the perpetual minor in awarding custody to the first respondent. The court <i>a quo</i>’s decision in that regard is unassailable and I respectfully associate myself with it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting absolution from the instance against part of the appellant’s claims.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo </i>granted the first respondent absolution from the instance in respect of the appellant’s claims, to a share in the South African properties namely <i>94 Matumi Sands, Lonehill (Pty) Ltd, 112 Matumi Sands, Lonehill (Pty) Ltd and 182 Shingara (Pty) Ltd</i> as well as a number of Zimbabwean assets.  The court <i>a quo</i> stated :</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“…I have also alluded to the various companies in which the plaintiff did not lay any claim but were alleged to be owned by the defendant and that I should consider that fact in the distribution of the assets of the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">These include:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ul><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Telehec Investments (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Natsbury Trading (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Bywork Intermedia </span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Incavat Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></u></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stir Crazy (Pvt) Ltd</span></span></u></span></span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW