claim for eviction (Summary judgment) http://zimlii.org/ en Jakamoko Investments (Pvt) Ltd v De Bruyn (67 of 2022) [2022] ZWMSVHC 67 (28 September 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/masvingo-high-court/2022/67 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Jakamoko Investments (Pvt) Ltd v De Bruyn (67 of 2022) [2022] ZWMSVHC 67 (28 September 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2218" hreflang="x-default">actio rei vindication</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1688" hreflang="en">Transfer of Shares</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2048" hreflang="en">Sale of Property</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2062" hreflang="en">Transfer of Property</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>RufaroD</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 10/03/2022 - 09:32</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwmsvhc/2022/67/2022-zwmsvhc-67.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=32539">2022-zwmsvhc-67.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwmsvhc/2022/67/2022-zwmsvhc-67.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=221994">2022-zwmsvhc-67.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">1<sdtpr></sdtpr></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HMA 67-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 405-19</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">JAKAMOKO INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BRENNAN JAMES MICHAEL DE BRUYN</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ZISENGWE J</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MASVINGO, 30 &amp; 28 September, 2022</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">V. Kwande </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">B.A. Chifamba </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Opposed Application </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ZISENGWE J:            The applicant seeks the eviction of the respondent from certain residential premises situated in the Midlands city of Kwekwe. The said property was identified by the parties as Stand Number 190 Queque Township and is also known as 19 Burma Road Newton, Kwekwe (hereinafter referred to as “the property”).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant, a company duly registered in terms of the laws of Zimbabwe, avers in the main that it is the registered owner of the property and produced the deed of transfer to that effect. It claims that the respondent took occupation of the property in 2015 and has remained in occupation thereof to date without any right, claim or title over the same. It claims that it now seeks to take occupation of the property hence the application for the eviction of the respondent. Applicant’s founding affidavit was deposed to by one Woodford A. Scrooby who identified himself therein as a director in the applicant company. The resolution itself was signed by Bryony Scrooby and Woodford Scrooby.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is resisted by the respondent the thrust of whose position is that he took occupation of the property consequent to him having purchased the entire shareholding of the applicant company from one Bryony Scrooby. He avers that not only did the said Bryony Scrooby hold herself out to be the holder of 100% shares of the applicant company but also that the property was owned by it (i.e. applicant).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> In his opposing affidavit the respondent chronicled the key events which culminated in him taking and remaining in occupation of the property and which according to him justify the dismissal of the eviction application. These events may be summarised as follows, that he took occupation of the property after entering into an agreement of sale of shares in the applicant with Bryony Scrooby on the 5<sup>th</sup> of November 2015. According to him in that sale Bryony Scrooby held out to him that she was one of the registered directors in the applicant and the she held 100% shares therein. He claims that he assumed that the company’s internal regulations had been complied with to legitimise the sale. As if this that was not assurance enough, he avers that he started receiving communication form the company’s accountants (Chapmans Chartered Accountants) demanding accounting fees from him on the basis of him being the new sole shareholder of the company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">More pertinently, he referred to Bulawayo High Court matter HC 2646/17(hereinafter referred to as “the Bulawayo matter”) wherein Bryony Scrooby, from whom he had purchased shares, had instituted a claim for the recovery of USD$66 000 (sixty-six thousand United States dollars) being the balance for the purchase price of the shares in the company. He also indicated that Bryony Scrooby’s declaration in that matter admitted of no doubt that the sale of the shares to him was a “package deal” which included the sale of the property as well.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He pointed out that the Bulawayo matter was resolved via a deed of settlement in terms of which he was required to pay the amount in question. The therefore claims that the said judgment not having been abandoned remains extant and that he has been honouring his side of the deed of settlement by making periodical payments to extinguish his indebtedness. Ultimately therefore he contends that as a bona fide purchaser of the applicant alongside its sole asset namely the property is entitled to the same.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In its answering affidavit the applicant countered the respondent’s averments chiefly in that Bryony Scrooby only hold 50%^shares in the applicant hence had no authority to dispose of the entire shareholding in the applicant. Secondly it was averred by the applicant that the sale of shares in the company by Bryony Scrooby to respondent did not include the sale of the property and further in this regard that the Bulawayo matter solely related to the outstanding amounts for the purchase price of shares in the applicant and did not extend to the alleged disposal of the house. The high water mark of applicant’s contention, therefore, is that Bryony Scrooby in her capacity as shareholder lacked the authority to dispose of the applicant’s property and that in any event the agreement of sale did not encompass the disposal of the property to the respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent however raised three preliminary points which in his view are each independently potentially dispositive of the matter. These are; firstly. that the resolution which purportedly authorized the deponent to the applicant’s founding affidavit to institute litigation on behalf of the applicant was a nullity because the persons who purported to grant such authority had no power to do so given that they relinquished their positions as directors in that company upon him (i.e. respondent) having purchased 100% shareholding in the applicant company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Secondly, respondent contends that there are material disputes of fact rendering the dispute incapable of resolution without the need for oral evidence. He referred in particular to the now disputed fact that he purchased the 100% shareholding in the applicant company whose rights and interests encompassed ownership of the very house that forms the subject matter of the dispute.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Thirdly, it is applicant’s contention that the applicant failed to set out a legally cognisable cause of action namely the failure to disclose the circumstances that led to him (i.e. respondent) taking occupation of the property. Each of these will preliminary points will be dealt with in turn.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The validity of the resolution passed by applicant </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the resolution authorising the deponent to the applicant’s founding affidavit is valid is dependant on the relationship if any, between Woodford A. Scrooby and Bryany Scrooby on the one hand and the applicant on the other. Whereas the respondent contends that the former two have since relinquished any directorship in the company and therefore cannot purport to grant such authority, the applicant argues otherwise. It avers that the resolution was properly passed because both Scroobys are current directors of the applicant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This particular point is incapable of proper adjudication without delving into the merits of the application itself. It is an issue that lies not the very heart of this application. The issue of the relationship between Scroobys and the applicant sought, in my respectful view should not have been raised as a preliminary issue as it effectively pre-empts the merits of the application and accordingly is deferred to such a stage when the merits of the case are determined should the remaining points <i>in limine</i> not dispose of the matter. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether there are material disputes of fact</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The question of whether or not there are material disputes of fact is a different kettle of fish and presents intractable problems for the applicant for the reasons articulated hereunder. What constitutes material disputes of fact has been the subject of many a judgement and a few examples will suffice. In <i>Supa Plant Investments (Pvt</i>) <i>Ltd</i> v <i>Edgar Chidavaenzi</i> 2009 (2) ZLR 132 (H) M</span></span></span><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">AKARAU</span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> JP (<i>as she then was</i>) defined a material dispute of fact in the following terms; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“A material dispute of fact arises when such material facts put by the applicant are disputed and traversed by the respondent in such a manner as to leave the court with no ready answer to the dispute between the parties in the absence of further evidence</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">”. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Material disputes of fact can also arise where the respondent admits the allegations contained in the applicant’s affidavit but alleges other facts which the applicant disputes. In this regard, the following was stated in <i>Savanhu v Marere &amp; 2 Ors</i> SC22/99: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:13px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span></span><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant chose to proceed by way of a court application to claim the order of specific performance against the first respondent.  As the proceedings were by way of a court application and there were disputes of fact the final relief could only have been granted if the facts stated by the first respondent together with the admitted facts in the appellant’s affidavit justified such an order.  Plascon Evans Paints Ltd v Van Riebeeck Paints (Pty) Ltd 1984(3) SA 623(A) at 634H-635B.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">n appreciation of the averments contained applicant’s founding and answering affidavits and those in respondent’s opposing affidavit reveals that the matter is littered with several material disputes of fact despite the applicant’s contention to the contrary.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">First and foremost, and perhaps central to the dispute is the relationship (both past and present, if any) between bryony Scrooby and the applicant. Whereas the applicant contends that Bryony Scrooby only held 50% shares of the applicant company and therefore could not have purported to dispose of 100% of the shares in the company to the respondent, the respondent avers that all documentary proof points to the Bryony having held 100% shares in the applicant. Neither party produced documentation showing the distribution of shares in the applicant company at the time when the agreement of sale took place. Surely this on its own presents a clear material dispute of fact which cannot be resolved without the leading of further evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Related to the above is the capacity in which Bryony Scroobie purports to continue acting on behalf of the applicant. This question arises from the fact that she (i.e. Bryony Scrooby) apparently signed the resolution authorising Woodford A. Scrooby to depose to the applicant’s founding affidavit. One therefore gets the impression that she is still actively participating in the affairs of the applicant. The explanation proffered by counsel is that Bryany Scrooby still enjoys directorship of the applicant company despite having relinquished her shares.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent however swiftly referred to clause 4.2. of the agreement of sale which reads;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>4.       <u>Document</u> </i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Within twenty-one (21) days of the effective date representatives of the parties shall meet at the offices of Patel Ferrao and Associate and the seller shall deliver to the purchaser:</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.1.      .............</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.2.      Signed resignations of offices by the directors of the company and by its </span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Company Secretary”.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            The dispute of fact that therefore arises is whether the Bryany Scroobie retained any directorship in the applicant company to continue transacting on its behalf as she purports to do. This is clearly an issue that does not lend itself to resolution without leading further evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Thirdly, and perhaps most importantly there is the question of whether or not the house from which the applicant seeks the eviction of the respondent was part and parcel of the alleged package deal involving the sale of shares from Bryony Scrooby to the respondent. In his opposing affidavit the respondent averred that he purchased the property in question from Bryany Scrooby who held herself out as being the sole shareholder of the applicant and therefore that he (i.e. respondent) owned the company alongside all its assets notably the property in question. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            In response the applicant sought to draw a distinction between the sale of the shares in the company on one hand the sale for the property on the other. In this regard a perusal of Clauses B and 5.5 of the Agreement of Sale appears to show not only that the property was the sole property held by the applicant but also that sale of shares by Bryony Scrooby to the Respondent included the property as well.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Clause B of the said Agreement of Sale reads;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>The company is the owner of the property being a certain piece of land situate in the district of Kwekwe called Stand 190 Queque township of Queque township held by it under deed of transfer 1771/96 “the property</i>”)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Clause 5.5. on the other hand reads;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>the sole asset of the company shall be the property</i>”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further in in this regard, the respondent referred to Bryony Scrooby’s declaration in the action proceedings in Bulawayo matter where she averred as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">3.         <i>On the 5<sup>th</sup> of November 2015, the plaintiff and defendant entered into an agreement of sale in respect of shares in a company called Jakamoko Investment (Pvt) Ltd. </i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.         <b>The sale also included immovable property known as Stand 190 Queque Township which was owned by Jakamoko Investments.</b></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">5.         In terms of the agreement, the total purchase price for the shares <b><u>and immovable</u></b> <b><u>property</u></b> was US$115 000 (one hundred and fifteen thousand United States dollars)</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Now that the applicant is denying the inclusion of the property in the sale of shares between Bryany Scrooby on the one hand and the respondent on the other, the question that naturally arises is whether or not the agreement of sale encompassed the sale of the property. This equally presents a material dispute of fact.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">To further illustrate the existence of disputes of fact it is necessary to consider the nature of the respondent’s opposition to the application as juxtaposed against applicant’s basis for the application. The applicant to my mind appears to labour under the misapprehension that once a person proves that he enjoys real rights in immovable property then he or she enjoys an unfettered right to evict any person who happens to be in possession of the same regardless of the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">While it is correct that the action for eviction is based on the <i>actio</i> <i>rei vindicatio</i> which holds that the owner of a thing is entitled to claim possession of his property from whoever is in possession of it without his consent, the person in such possession might however proffer a defence to the possession of the property.  In <i>Savanhu</i> v <i>Hwange Colliery Company</i> SC 8/15, the Supreme Court held as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>the actio rei vindicatio is an action by an owner of property to recover it from any person who retains possession of it without his consent. It derives from the principle that an owner cannot be deprived of his property without his consent. As it was put in Chetty v Naidoo 1974 (3) SA 13(A) : It is inherent in the nature of ownership that possession of the res should normally be with the owner, and it follows that no other person may withhold it from the owner <b><u>unless he is vested with some right against the owner (e.g. a right of</u></b> <b><u>retention or a contractual right</u></b></i>”. (Emphasis my own).</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Susan January</i> v <i>Norman Maferefu</i> SC 14/20 U</span></span></span><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHENA</span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> JA listed the main defences to a claim under the <i>actio vindicatio</i>. He said the following; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>There are basically four main defences to a claim of rei vindicatio which are:</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the applicant is not the owner of the property in question</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the property in question no longer exists and can no longer be identified</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the respondent’s possession of such property is lawful</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the respondent is no longer in physical control of the property – see the cases of Chetty v Naidoo (supra) and Residents of Joe Slovo Community v Thabelisha Homes 2010 (3) SA 454 (CC)”.</span></span></i></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the present case the respondent clearly relies on the first and third defences as he asserts that he purchased the property in question together with the purchase of shares in the applicant company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Having therefore demonstrated the existence of material disputes of fact, what fate to befall this application is the question that now begs. It is trite that where material disputes of fact emerge in application proceedings there are basically four avenues available to the court namely;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to dismiss the application should applicant have foreseen material disputes of fact arising; <i>Masukusa</i> v <i>National Foods and Anor</i> 1983 (1) ZLR 232; <i>Bevcorp (Pvt)</i> <i>Ltd </i>v <i>Nyoni &amp; Ors</i> 1992 (1) ZLR 352; <i>Wenzhou Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd</i> v <i>Chen Shialong</i> HH 61-15</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to refer the matter to trial in terms if r 46(10) of the High Court Rules, 2021; see <i>Chirinda</i> v <i>Chitepo</i> SC 42/92; <i>Dulys (Pvt) Ltd</i> v <i>Brown</i> SC 172/93; <i>Masukusa</i> v <i>National Foods &amp; Anor</i> (<i>supra</i>) </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to hear oral evidence in terms of r 58(12) of the Rules of the High Court, 2021; see <i>Barcklie</i> v <i>Bridle</i> 1955 SR 350; <i>Bhura</i> v <i>Lalla</i> 1974 (1) RLR 31</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to take robust approach and decide the matter on the available evidence, see <i>Zimbabwe Bonded Fibreglass (Pvt) Ltd</i> v <i>Leech</i> 1987 (2) ZLR 338; <i>Musevenzo</i> v <i>Beji &amp; Anor</i> HH 268/13</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Chifamba for the respondent urged the court to dismiss the application as the disputes of fact were inevitable and readily foreseeable. Ms Kwande for the applicant on the other hand implored the court to refer the matter for trial as this to her would potentially yield a more just outcome. I however believe that there is justification in dismissing the application. This is particularly so in light of the previous litigation between the parties in the High Court, Bulawayo matter. The applicant was aware that the respondent would obviously resist the application on the basis that he purchased the property. It is strange that the applicant’s founding affidavit would be conspicuously silent on such prior litigation as it bore no more than a bare skeleton of the nature of the dispute without the slightest allusion to the Bulawayo matter and to the circumstances giving rise to the respondent’s occupation of the property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Counsel for the applicant sought to suggest that the Bulawayo matter was irrelevant as it pitted different parties and the subject matter was different. Nothing can be further from the truth. The subject matter in Bulawayo matter and the present one is essentially the same (namely the sale of the shares and the property to the respondent) and the main protagonists are the same (namely the applicant, Bryony Scrooby and the respondent). The only difference being the nature of the dispute. At the very least, Bryony Scrooby who ostensibly as a co-director signed the applicant’s resolution authorising Woodward A. Scrooby to institute the current proceedings knew of and foresaw respondent’s potential claim to the property. In <i>Carole Patricia Williams &amp; Anor v Malcom Sydney Williams &amp; 2 Ors</i> HH 12-02, the court had occasion to deal with a situation which resembles the present. In that case the parties had earlier squared off in action proceedings in a matter involving the same subject matter, but the applicant had instituted application proceedings knowing fully well that disputes of fact were likely to arise. The court per GUVAVA J (as she then was) had this to say in dismissing the application:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“In this case the applicants must have known that there were disputes of fact as they had initially issued out summons in case No HC 15403/98 relating to the same parties and on similar issues.  The respondents' opposing affidavit has raised the same disputed issues as they had pleaded in the earlier case.  This case was subsequently withdrawn by the plaintiffs (applicant in this case).  Although the applicants sought to deal with them in the replying affidavit, these are issues which can only be properly dealt with by adducing evidence.  In the case of Masukusa v National Foods Ltd &amp; Another (supra) the court, in dealing with this very question, said at page 236F -</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">"Now in the present case I have not the slightest doubt that the applicant should have realized that a serious dispute of fact was to develop as between himself and both respondents.  Should I nevertheless, in the interest of saving costs and generally getting on with the matter, condone the wrong procedural approach?  In my view it would be wrong to do so.  There are a number of reasons.  In the first place this is a very clear example of the wrong case of procedure.  The conflicts of fact were glaring and obvious and were in fact referred to in the applicant's affidavit.  In the second place the claim for damages was clearly illiquid and would patently need examination by way of evidence".</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was clear to the applicant, particularly in light of the position held by Bryony Scrooby in both the Bulawayo and the present matter that the respondent would inevitably bring up the issue of him having purchased shares in the applicant company alongside the property in question. It can hardly be argued that this was is an issue that took the applicant by surprise. The applicant took a gamble by proceeding by way of notice of motion.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Even if one were for a moment to accept the position advanced on behalf of the applicant that the real issue revolves around ownership of shares in the applicant company the result would be the same in the sense that material disputes of fact were inevitable and foreseeable to the applicant. In <i>Wenzhou Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd v Chen Shialong</i> (supra) MAKONI J (as she then was) dismissed a matter brought on application in circumstances where she found that the applicant ought to have realised that material disputes of fact arising. That matter, as the present one, incidentally also involved to a dispute over shares in the applicant company with the parties trading accusations on the legitimacy of the shares held by the protagonists. In summarising the nature of the dispute in that case the court observed as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“From the way 1 outlined the facts of this matter at the onset, it is clear that there are material disputes of facts.  The versions of the parties as to the events in this matter are so divergent that this court cannot reconcile them on the papers.  Both deponents to the affidavits in this matter aver that they are the shareholders and directors of the applicant. They both produce share certificates and allege that the other share certificates are fake.  The deponent to the founding affidavit avers that he purchased the respondent’s shares.  There is no agreement attached.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> After making the above observation, the court concluded as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> “It must have been clear to the applicant that there is a “bona fide and not mere illusory dispute of fact”. See Zimbabwe Bonded Fibre Glass (Pvt) Ltd v Peech 1987 (2) ZLR 338 (S) at 339C.  The same approach was adopted in Mashingaidze v Mashingaidze 1995 (1) ZLR 219 @ 221 G-22A where Robinson J (as he then was) stated</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“It is necessary to discourage the too-oft recurring practice whereby applicants who I know or should know as was the case with the applicant in this matter, that real and substantial disputes of fact will or are likely to arise on the papers, nevertheless resort to application proceedings on the basis, that at the worst, they can count on the court to stand over the matter for trial.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Unless this practice is seen to be curbed, applicant will continue to believe that there have nothing to lose and everything to gain tactically by embarking upon application proceedings not withstanding their knowledge or belief at the time of doing so that the respondent will not be able to show that genuine and serious dispute of fact exist on the papers.” </span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I will have no difficulty in dismissing the application.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Equally, I believe this is a proper case justifying the dismissal of the application because the dispute of fact was glaring and foreseeable. Accordingly the following order is hereby given;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Order</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Application is hereby dismissed with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Kwande Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mavhiringidze &amp; Mashanyare Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-190ff6b92c35cba348bc529f6c78439f6cdb7a79e6ae30cc070e08af331b446b"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">1<sdtpr></sdtpr></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HMA 67-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 405-19</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">JAKAMOKO INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BRENNAN JAMES MICHAEL DE BRUYN</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ZISENGWE J</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MASVINGO, 30 &amp; 28 September, 2022</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">V. Kwande </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the applicant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">B.A. Chifamba </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Opposed Application </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ZISENGWE J:            The applicant seeks the eviction of the respondent from certain residential premises situated in the Midlands city of Kwekwe. The said property was identified by the parties as Stand Number 190 Queque Township and is also known as 19 Burma Road Newton, Kwekwe (hereinafter referred to as “the property”).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant, a company duly registered in terms of the laws of Zimbabwe, avers in the main that it is the registered owner of the property and produced the deed of transfer to that effect. It claims that the respondent took occupation of the property in 2015 and has remained in occupation thereof to date without any right, claim or title over the same. It claims that it now seeks to take occupation of the property hence the application for the eviction of the respondent. Applicant’s founding affidavit was deposed to by one Woodford A. Scrooby who identified himself therein as a director in the applicant company. The resolution itself was signed by Bryony Scrooby and Woodford Scrooby.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is resisted by the respondent the thrust of whose position is that he took occupation of the property consequent to him having purchased the entire shareholding of the applicant company from one Bryony Scrooby. He avers that not only did the said Bryony Scrooby hold herself out to be the holder of 100% shares of the applicant company but also that the property was owned by it (i.e. applicant).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> In his opposing affidavit the respondent chronicled the key events which culminated in him taking and remaining in occupation of the property and which according to him justify the dismissal of the eviction application. These events may be summarised as follows, that he took occupation of the property after entering into an agreement of sale of shares in the applicant with Bryony Scrooby on the 5<sup>th</sup> of November 2015. According to him in that sale Bryony Scrooby held out to him that she was one of the registered directors in the applicant and the she held 100% shares therein. He claims that he assumed that the company’s internal regulations had been complied with to legitimise the sale. As if this that was not assurance enough, he avers that he started receiving communication form the company’s accountants (Chapmans Chartered Accountants) demanding accounting fees from him on the basis of him being the new sole shareholder of the company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">More pertinently, he referred to Bulawayo High Court matter HC 2646/17(hereinafter referred to as “the Bulawayo matter”) wherein Bryony Scrooby, from whom he had purchased shares, had instituted a claim for the recovery of USD$66 000 (sixty-six thousand United States dollars) being the balance for the purchase price of the shares in the company. He also indicated that Bryony Scrooby’s declaration in that matter admitted of no doubt that the sale of the shares to him was a “package deal” which included the sale of the property as well.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He pointed out that the Bulawayo matter was resolved via a deed of settlement in terms of which he was required to pay the amount in question. The therefore claims that the said judgment not having been abandoned remains extant and that he has been honouring his side of the deed of settlement by making periodical payments to extinguish his indebtedness. Ultimately therefore he contends that as a bona fide purchaser of the applicant alongside its sole asset namely the property is entitled to the same.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In its answering affidavit the applicant countered the respondent’s averments chiefly in that Bryony Scrooby only hold 50%^shares in the applicant hence had no authority to dispose of the entire shareholding in the applicant. Secondly it was averred by the applicant that the sale of shares in the company by Bryony Scrooby to respondent did not include the sale of the property and further in this regard that the Bulawayo matter solely related to the outstanding amounts for the purchase price of shares in the applicant and did not extend to the alleged disposal of the house. The high water mark of applicant’s contention, therefore, is that Bryony Scrooby in her capacity as shareholder lacked the authority to dispose of the applicant’s property and that in any event the agreement of sale did not encompass the disposal of the property to the respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent however raised three preliminary points which in his view are each independently potentially dispositive of the matter. These are; firstly. that the resolution which purportedly authorized the deponent to the applicant’s founding affidavit to institute litigation on behalf of the applicant was a nullity because the persons who purported to grant such authority had no power to do so given that they relinquished their positions as directors in that company upon him (i.e. respondent) having purchased 100% shareholding in the applicant company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Secondly, respondent contends that there are material disputes of fact rendering the dispute incapable of resolution without the need for oral evidence. He referred in particular to the now disputed fact that he purchased the 100% shareholding in the applicant company whose rights and interests encompassed ownership of the very house that forms the subject matter of the dispute.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Thirdly, it is applicant’s contention that the applicant failed to set out a legally cognisable cause of action namely the failure to disclose the circumstances that led to him (i.e. respondent) taking occupation of the property. Each of these will preliminary points will be dealt with in turn.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The validity of the resolution passed by applicant </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether or not the resolution authorising the deponent to the applicant’s founding affidavit is valid is dependant on the relationship if any, between Woodford A. Scrooby and Bryany Scrooby on the one hand and the applicant on the other. Whereas the respondent contends that the former two have since relinquished any directorship in the company and therefore cannot purport to grant such authority, the applicant argues otherwise. It avers that the resolution was properly passed because both Scroobys are current directors of the applicant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This particular point is incapable of proper adjudication without delving into the merits of the application itself. It is an issue that lies not the very heart of this application. The issue of the relationship between Scroobys and the applicant sought, in my respectful view should not have been raised as a preliminary issue as it effectively pre-empts the merits of the application and accordingly is deferred to such a stage when the merits of the case are determined should the remaining points <i>in limine</i> not dispose of the matter. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether there are material disputes of fact</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The question of whether or not there are material disputes of fact is a different kettle of fish and presents intractable problems for the applicant for the reasons articulated hereunder. What constitutes material disputes of fact has been the subject of many a judgement and a few examples will suffice. In <i>Supa Plant Investments (Pvt</i>) <i>Ltd</i> v <i>Edgar Chidavaenzi</i> 2009 (2) ZLR 132 (H) M</span></span></span><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">AKARAU</span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> JP (<i>as she then was</i>) defined a material dispute of fact in the following terms; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“A material dispute of fact arises when such material facts put by the applicant are disputed and traversed by the respondent in such a manner as to leave the court with no ready answer to the dispute between the parties in the absence of further evidence</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">”. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Material disputes of fact can also arise where the respondent admits the allegations contained in the applicant’s affidavit but alleges other facts which the applicant disputes. In this regard, the following was stated in <i>Savanhu v Marere &amp; 2 Ors</i> SC22/99: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:13px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span></span><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant chose to proceed by way of a court application to claim the order of specific performance against the first respondent.  As the proceedings were by way of a court application and there were disputes of fact the final relief could only have been granted if the facts stated by the first respondent together with the admitted facts in the appellant’s affidavit justified such an order.  Plascon Evans Paints Ltd v Van Riebeeck Paints (Pty) Ltd 1984(3) SA 623(A) at 634H-635B.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">n appreciation of the averments contained applicant’s founding and answering affidavits and those in respondent’s opposing affidavit reveals that the matter is littered with several material disputes of fact despite the applicant’s contention to the contrary.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">First and foremost, and perhaps central to the dispute is the relationship (both past and present, if any) between bryony Scrooby and the applicant. Whereas the applicant contends that Bryony Scrooby only held 50% shares of the applicant company and therefore could not have purported to dispose of 100% of the shares in the company to the respondent, the respondent avers that all documentary proof points to the Bryony having held 100% shares in the applicant. Neither party produced documentation showing the distribution of shares in the applicant company at the time when the agreement of sale took place. Surely this on its own presents a clear material dispute of fact which cannot be resolved without the leading of further evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Related to the above is the capacity in which Bryony Scroobie purports to continue acting on behalf of the applicant. This question arises from the fact that she (i.e. Bryony Scrooby) apparently signed the resolution authorising Woodford A. Scrooby to depose to the applicant’s founding affidavit. One therefore gets the impression that she is still actively participating in the affairs of the applicant. The explanation proffered by counsel is that Bryany Scrooby still enjoys directorship of the applicant company despite having relinquished her shares.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent however swiftly referred to clause 4.2. of the agreement of sale which reads;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>4.       <u>Document</u> </i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Within twenty-one (21) days of the effective date representatives of the parties shall meet at the offices of Patel Ferrao and Associate and the seller shall deliver to the purchaser:</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.1.      .............</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.2.      Signed resignations of offices by the directors of the company and by its </span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Company Secretary”.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            The dispute of fact that therefore arises is whether the Bryany Scroobie retained any directorship in the applicant company to continue transacting on its behalf as she purports to do. This is clearly an issue that does not lend itself to resolution without leading further evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Thirdly, and perhaps most importantly there is the question of whether or not the house from which the applicant seeks the eviction of the respondent was part and parcel of the alleged package deal involving the sale of shares from Bryony Scrooby to the respondent. In his opposing affidavit the respondent averred that he purchased the property in question from Bryany Scrooby who held herself out as being the sole shareholder of the applicant and therefore that he (i.e. respondent) owned the company alongside all its assets notably the property in question. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            In response the applicant sought to draw a distinction between the sale of the shares in the company on one hand the sale for the property on the other. In this regard a perusal of Clauses B and 5.5 of the Agreement of Sale appears to show not only that the property was the sole property held by the applicant but also that sale of shares by Bryony Scrooby to the Respondent included the property as well.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Clause B of the said Agreement of Sale reads;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>The company is the owner of the property being a certain piece of land situate in the district of Kwekwe called Stand 190 Queque township of Queque township held by it under deed of transfer 1771/96 “the property</i>”)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Clause 5.5. on the other hand reads;</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>the sole asset of the company shall be the property</i>”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further in in this regard, the respondent referred to Bryony Scrooby’s declaration in the action proceedings in Bulawayo matter where she averred as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">3.         <i>On the 5<sup>th</sup> of November 2015, the plaintiff and defendant entered into an agreement of sale in respect of shares in a company called Jakamoko Investment (Pvt) Ltd. </i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">4.         <b>The sale also included immovable property known as Stand 190 Queque Township which was owned by Jakamoko Investments.</b></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">5.         In terms of the agreement, the total purchase price for the shares <b><u>and immovable</u></b> <b><u>property</u></b> was US$115 000 (one hundred and fifteen thousand United States dollars)</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Now that the applicant is denying the inclusion of the property in the sale of shares between Bryany Scrooby on the one hand and the respondent on the other, the question that naturally arises is whether or not the agreement of sale encompassed the sale of the property. This equally presents a material dispute of fact.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">To further illustrate the existence of disputes of fact it is necessary to consider the nature of the respondent’s opposition to the application as juxtaposed against applicant’s basis for the application. The applicant to my mind appears to labour under the misapprehension that once a person proves that he enjoys real rights in immovable property then he or she enjoys an unfettered right to evict any person who happens to be in possession of the same regardless of the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">While it is correct that the action for eviction is based on the <i>actio</i> <i>rei vindicatio</i> which holds that the owner of a thing is entitled to claim possession of his property from whoever is in possession of it without his consent, the person in such possession might however proffer a defence to the possession of the property.  In <i>Savanhu</i> v <i>Hwange Colliery Company</i> SC 8/15, the Supreme Court held as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>the actio rei vindicatio is an action by an owner of property to recover it from any person who retains possession of it without his consent. It derives from the principle that an owner cannot be deprived of his property without his consent. As it was put in Chetty v Naidoo 1974 (3) SA 13(A) : It is inherent in the nature of ownership that possession of the res should normally be with the owner, and it follows that no other person may withhold it from the owner <b><u>unless he is vested with some right against the owner (e.g. a right of</u></b> <b><u>retention or a contractual right</u></b></i>”. (Emphasis my own).</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Susan January</i> v <i>Norman Maferefu</i> SC 14/20 U</span></span></span><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHENA</span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> JA listed the main defences to a claim under the <i>actio vindicatio</i>. He said the following; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>There are basically four main defences to a claim of rei vindicatio which are:</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the applicant is not the owner of the property in question</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the property in question no longer exists and can no longer be identified</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the respondent’s possession of such property is lawful</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">that the respondent is no longer in physical control of the property – see the cases of Chetty v Naidoo (supra) and Residents of Joe Slovo Community v Thabelisha Homes 2010 (3) SA 454 (CC)”.</span></span></i></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the present case the respondent clearly relies on the first and third defences as he asserts that he purchased the property in question together with the purchase of shares in the applicant company.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Having therefore demonstrated the existence of material disputes of fact, what fate to befall this application is the question that now begs. It is trite that where material disputes of fact emerge in application proceedings there are basically four avenues available to the court namely;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to dismiss the application should applicant have foreseen material disputes of fact arising; <i>Masukusa</i> v <i>National Foods and Anor</i> 1983 (1) ZLR 232; <i>Bevcorp (Pvt)</i> <i>Ltd </i>v <i>Nyoni &amp; Ors</i> 1992 (1) ZLR 352; <i>Wenzhou Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd</i> v <i>Chen Shialong</i> HH 61-15</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to refer the matter to trial in terms if r 46(10) of the High Court Rules, 2021; see <i>Chirinda</i> v <i>Chitepo</i> SC 42/92; <i>Dulys (Pvt) Ltd</i> v <i>Brown</i> SC 172/93; <i>Masukusa</i> v <i>National Foods &amp; Anor</i> (<i>supra</i>) </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to hear oral evidence in terms of r 58(12) of the Rules of the High Court, 2021; see <i>Barcklie</i> v <i>Bridle</i> 1955 SR 350; <i>Bhura</i> v <i>Lalla</i> 1974 (1) RLR 31</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">to take robust approach and decide the matter on the available evidence, see <i>Zimbabwe Bonded Fibreglass (Pvt) Ltd</i> v <i>Leech</i> 1987 (2) ZLR 338; <i>Musevenzo</i> v <i>Beji &amp; Anor</i> HH 268/13</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Chifamba for the respondent urged the court to dismiss the application as the disputes of fact were inevitable and readily foreseeable. Ms Kwande for the applicant on the other hand implored the court to refer the matter for trial as this to her would potentially yield a more just outcome. I however believe that there is justification in dismissing the application. This is particularly so in light of the previous litigation between the parties in the High Court, Bulawayo matter. The applicant was aware that the respondent would obviously resist the application on the basis that he purchased the property. It is strange that the applicant’s founding affidavit would be conspicuously silent on such prior litigation as it bore no more than a bare skeleton of the nature of the dispute without the slightest allusion to the Bulawayo matter and to the circumstances giving rise to the respondent’s occupation of the property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Counsel for the applicant sought to suggest that the Bulawayo matter was irrelevant as it pitted different parties and the subject matter was different. Nothing can be further from the truth. The subject matter in Bulawayo matter and the present one is essentially the same (namely the sale of the shares and the property to the respondent) and the main protagonists are the same (namely the applicant, Bryony Scrooby and the respondent). The only difference being the nature of the dispute. At the very least, Bryony Scrooby who ostensibly as a co-director signed the applicant’s resolution authorising Woodward A. Scrooby to institute the current proceedings knew of and foresaw respondent’s potential claim to the property. In <i>Carole Patricia Williams &amp; Anor v Malcom Sydney Williams &amp; 2 Ors</i> HH 12-02, the court had occasion to deal with a situation which resembles the present. In that case the parties had earlier squared off in action proceedings in a matter involving the same subject matter, but the applicant had instituted application proceedings knowing fully well that disputes of fact were likely to arise. The court per GUVAVA J (as she then was) had this to say in dismissing the application:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“In this case the applicants must have known that there were disputes of fact as they had initially issued out summons in case No HC 15403/98 relating to the same parties and on similar issues.  The respondents' opposing affidavit has raised the same disputed issues as they had pleaded in the earlier case.  This case was subsequently withdrawn by the plaintiffs (applicant in this case).  Although the applicants sought to deal with them in the replying affidavit, these are issues which can only be properly dealt with by adducing evidence.  In the case of Masukusa v National Foods Ltd &amp; Another (supra) the court, in dealing with this very question, said at page 236F -</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">"Now in the present case I have not the slightest doubt that the applicant should have realized that a serious dispute of fact was to develop as between himself and both respondents.  Should I nevertheless, in the interest of saving costs and generally getting on with the matter, condone the wrong procedural approach?  In my view it would be wrong to do so.  There are a number of reasons.  In the first place this is a very clear example of the wrong case of procedure.  The conflicts of fact were glaring and obvious and were in fact referred to in the applicant's affidavit.  In the second place the claim for damages was clearly illiquid and would patently need examination by way of evidence".</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was clear to the applicant, particularly in light of the position held by Bryony Scrooby in both the Bulawayo and the present matter that the respondent would inevitably bring up the issue of him having purchased shares in the applicant company alongside the property in question. It can hardly be argued that this was is an issue that took the applicant by surprise. The applicant took a gamble by proceeding by way of notice of motion.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Even if one were for a moment to accept the position advanced on behalf of the applicant that the real issue revolves around ownership of shares in the applicant company the result would be the same in the sense that material disputes of fact were inevitable and foreseeable to the applicant. In <i>Wenzhou Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd v Chen Shialong</i> (supra) MAKONI J (as she then was) dismissed a matter brought on application in circumstances where she found that the applicant ought to have realised that material disputes of fact arising. That matter, as the present one, incidentally also involved to a dispute over shares in the applicant company with the parties trading accusations on the legitimacy of the shares held by the protagonists. In summarising the nature of the dispute in that case the court observed as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“From the way 1 outlined the facts of this matter at the onset, it is clear that there are material disputes of facts.  The versions of the parties as to the events in this matter are so divergent that this court cannot reconcile them on the papers.  Both deponents to the affidavits in this matter aver that they are the shareholders and directors of the applicant. They both produce share certificates and allege that the other share certificates are fake.  The deponent to the founding affidavit avers that he purchased the respondent’s shares.  There is no agreement attached.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> After making the above observation, the court concluded as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> “It must have been clear to the applicant that there is a “bona fide and not mere illusory dispute of fact”. See Zimbabwe Bonded Fibre Glass (Pvt) Ltd v Peech 1987 (2) ZLR 338 (S) at 339C.  The same approach was adopted in Mashingaidze v Mashingaidze 1995 (1) ZLR 219 @ 221 G-22A where Robinson J (as he then was) stated</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“It is necessary to discourage the too-oft recurring practice whereby applicants who I know or should know as was the case with the applicant in this matter, that real and substantial disputes of fact will or are likely to arise on the papers, nevertheless resort to application proceedings on the basis, that at the worst, they can count on the court to stand over the matter for trial.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Unless this practice is seen to be curbed, applicant will continue to believe that there have nothing to lose and everything to gain tactically by embarking upon application proceedings not withstanding their knowledge or belief at the time of doing so that the respondent will not be able to show that genuine and serious dispute of fact exist on the papers.” </span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I will have no difficulty in dismissing the application.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Equally, I believe this is a proper case justifying the dismissal of the application because the dispute of fact was glaring and foreseeable. Accordingly the following order is hereby given;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Order</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Application is hereby dismissed with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Kwande Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mavhiringidze &amp; Mashanyare Legal Practitioners</span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 03 Oct 2022 09:32:50 +0000 RufaroD 12673 at http://zimlii.org Masanza and Another (Informa pauperis) v Rwafa and 2 Others (49 of 2022) [2022] ZWSC 49 (06 April 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/supreme-court-zimbabwe/2022/49 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Masanza and Another (Informa pauperis) v Rwafa and 2 Others (49 of 2022) [2022] ZWSC 49 (06 April 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2345" hreflang="x-default">Acquisition of land</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1657" hreflang="en">Stay of Execution</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2269" hreflang="x-default">Urgent Application</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2271" hreflang="x-default">what constitutes urgency (Urgent application)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2272" hreflang="x-default">when may be made (Urgent application)</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/18/2022 - 09:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwsc/2022/49/2022-zwsc-49.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=26339">2022-zwsc-49.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwsc/2022/49/2022-zwsc-49.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=530107">2022-zwsc-49.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right"><span style="font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 11pt;">Judgment No. SC 49/22</span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Chamber Application No. SC 91/22</span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DISTRIBUTABLE (39)</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <ol><li align="center" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">NGWARU     MASANZA (<i>Informa pauperis</i>)     (2)    PRISCILLA     ZUNGUZA (<i>Informa pauperis</i>)       </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:80px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">LUKE     RWAFA     (2) PLACXEDAS     RWAFA     </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(3) MESSENGER     OF     COURT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUPREME COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 6 APRIL 2022 </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>T. Biti,</i> for the applicants</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ms<i> V. Vhera,</i> for the respondents</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENT CHAMBER APPLICATION</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                             <b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHIWESHE JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">:       In this urgent chamber application the applicants seek a provisional order couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            <b>“TERMS OF THE FINAL ORDER SOUGHT</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That you show cause to this Honourable Court why a final order should not be made in the following terms:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That a stay of execution of the order given in CHN 286/19 be granted pending application in the High Court for condonation for late filing of leave to appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the event that this matter is opposed, that the Respondents be and are hereby ordered to pay costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">INTERIM RELIEF GRANTED </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Pending finalisation of this matter an interim order is hereby granted in the following terms:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This application succeeds and a stay of execution of the judgment in the Chinhoyi Magistrates’ Court under case number CHN 286/19 be and is hereby granted to the applicants pending application in the High Court for condonation for late filing of leave to appeal to the Supreme Court.”</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FACTUAL BACKGROUND</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                   <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In early 2000, at the height of the land reform programme, the applicants and many others moved to occupy Heydon Farm on the outskirts of Harare.  They proceeded to build family homes and to engage in agricultural activities.  Subsequently the whole of Heydon Farm was compulsorily acquired by the State and a notice to that effect was published in the Government Gazette in terms of the Land Acquisition Act [<i>Chapter 20:10</i>]. Contrary to their expectations none of the occupiers were favoured with either offer letters, permits or lease agreements which documents would have regularised their stay at Heydon Farm. Instead part of the farm was subdivided into residential stands with title deeds and sold to various persons. This formalised part of the farm is referred to as Heydon Township. The respondents who are husband and wife bought one of these residential stands described as stand 2915 Haydon Township, measuring 2193 square metres and received title. It is common cause that at the time of sale and transfer the applicants were resident at what became the respondents’ residential stand.  It is also common cause that the applicants have no legal basis to occupy Heydon Farm in general or the respondents’ stand in particular.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In order to assert their proprietary rights, the respondents approached the Magistrates’ Court at Chinhoyi seeking an eviction order against the applicants. Their application succeeded and an order for the eviction of the applicants from Stand 2915 Haydon Township was granted under case number CHN 286/19. Aggrieved with that outcome the applicants noted an appeal with the High Court (the court <i>a</i> <i>quo)</i>. The court <i>a quo </i>dismissed the appeal and confirmed the eviction order granted by the Magistrates’ Court. The respondents then noted an appeal with this Court under case number SC 277/20 which appeal suspended the order of the court <i>a quo</i>.  Undeterred, the respondents filed an application for leave to execute pending appeal. The application was granted by CHITAPI J under case number HC 3097/20.  The applicants noted an appeal against that judgment under case number SC 441/20.  The appeal was struck off the roll on the grounds that leave to appeal ought to have been sought in the court <i>a quo.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In the meantime, pursuant to the order by CHITAPI J, the applicants were served with a notice of attachment and eviction from the respondents’ stand. The notice is dated 28 February 2022.  It is that notice that has triggered the present urgent chamber application wherein stay of execution is sought.  The application is opposed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        The respondents have raised two preliminary issues, namely that the matter is not urgent and that the application has since been overtaken by events on the ground. It is argued that the urgency is self-created as the applicants failed to act when the need to act arose on 15 February 2022 when the applicants’ appeal under case number SC 441/20 was struck off the roll.  The applicants should have known that as a result the respondents would, in the absence of a pending appeal, proceed with eviction. Instead of acting there and then the applicants waited till they were served with the notice of attachment and eviction dated 28 February 2022, thirteen days after SC 441/20 was struck off. I am of the view that the criticism levelled against the applicants in this regard is not warranted. A delay of thirteen days cannot, in the circumstances of this case, be regarded as inordinate. The applicants had been to this Court on appeal. They were not sitting on their laurels. The appeal was not dismissed but struck off the roll on a technicality. They are attending at the High Court seeking leave to appeal. Whilst awaiting the results they were served with the notice of eviction. They have reacted swiftly to that notice by filing the present application. I would for those reasons dismiss the preliminary issue and hold that the matter be treated as urgent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        However, the second preliminary issue has merit and is dispositive of the application. The respondents contended that the applicants have been evicted from their stand in terms of an extant eviction order. Mr <i>Biti</i>, for the applicants, has not denied that his clients have been evicted. Instead he sought to<b> </b>argue that the eviction was not effectively carried out as the Messenger of Court only threw out the applicants’ property but left the dwelling shack intact. The implication being that the applicants, having been evicted returned to occupy the shack. It would be remiss of this Court to run along with Mr <i>Biti’s </i>suggestion and reverse an eviction properly executed in terms of a court order on the grounds that the Messenger of Court ought to have destroyed the dwelling shack. What was to be evicted are the applicants and not their shack. I hold therefore that the eviction was effected and that the applicants’ return to the stand is in direct disregard of a lawfully given court order. This Court cannot condone their contemptuous conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        I agree with the respondents that in view of the applicants’ eviction this application has been overtaken by events and has thus been rendered moot. It cannot succeed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        As the applicants are indigent there shall be no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                        </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        It is ordered as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The application be and is hereby dismissed with no order as to costs.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-6d2da1024e79401da0ccf4a977198e4696c92c2076df79ead9b191fd123a1179"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right"><span style="font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 11pt;">Judgment No. SC 49/22</span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Chamber Application No. SC 91/22</span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DISTRIBUTABLE (39)</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <ol><li align="center" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">NGWARU     MASANZA (<i>Informa pauperis</i>)     (2)    PRISCILLA     ZUNGUZA (<i>Informa pauperis</i>)       </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:80px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">LUKE     RWAFA     (2) PLACXEDAS     RWAFA     </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:120px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(3) MESSENGER     OF     COURT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUPREME COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 6 APRIL 2022 </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr <i>T. Biti,</i> for the applicants</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ms<i> V. Vhera,</i> for the respondents</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">URGENT CHAMBER APPLICATION</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                             <b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHIWESHE JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">:       In this urgent chamber application the applicants seek a provisional order couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            <b>“TERMS OF THE FINAL ORDER SOUGHT</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That you show cause to this Honourable Court why a final order should not be made in the following terms:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That a stay of execution of the order given in CHN 286/19 be granted pending application in the High Court for condonation for late filing of leave to appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the event that this matter is opposed, that the Respondents be and are hereby ordered to pay costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">INTERIM RELIEF GRANTED </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Pending finalisation of this matter an interim order is hereby granted in the following terms:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This application succeeds and a stay of execution of the judgment in the Chinhoyi Magistrates’ Court under case number CHN 286/19 be and is hereby granted to the applicants pending application in the High Court for condonation for late filing of leave to appeal to the Supreme Court.”</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FACTUAL BACKGROUND</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                   <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In early 2000, at the height of the land reform programme, the applicants and many others moved to occupy Heydon Farm on the outskirts of Harare.  They proceeded to build family homes and to engage in agricultural activities.  Subsequently the whole of Heydon Farm was compulsorily acquired by the State and a notice to that effect was published in the Government Gazette in terms of the Land Acquisition Act [<i>Chapter 20:10</i>]. Contrary to their expectations none of the occupiers were favoured with either offer letters, permits or lease agreements which documents would have regularised their stay at Heydon Farm. Instead part of the farm was subdivided into residential stands with title deeds and sold to various persons. This formalised part of the farm is referred to as Heydon Township. The respondents who are husband and wife bought one of these residential stands described as stand 2915 Haydon Township, measuring 2193 square metres and received title. It is common cause that at the time of sale and transfer the applicants were resident at what became the respondents’ residential stand.  It is also common cause that the applicants have no legal basis to occupy Heydon Farm in general or the respondents’ stand in particular.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In order to assert their proprietary rights, the respondents approached the Magistrates’ Court at Chinhoyi seeking an eviction order against the applicants. Their application succeeded and an order for the eviction of the applicants from Stand 2915 Haydon Township was granted under case number CHN 286/19. Aggrieved with that outcome the applicants noted an appeal with the High Court (the court <i>a</i> <i>quo)</i>. The court <i>a quo </i>dismissed the appeal and confirmed the eviction order granted by the Magistrates’ Court. The respondents then noted an appeal with this Court under case number SC 277/20 which appeal suspended the order of the court <i>a quo</i>.  Undeterred, the respondents filed an application for leave to execute pending appeal. The application was granted by CHITAPI J under case number HC 3097/20.  The applicants noted an appeal against that judgment under case number SC 441/20.  The appeal was struck off the roll on the grounds that leave to appeal ought to have been sought in the court <i>a quo.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        In the meantime, pursuant to the order by CHITAPI J, the applicants were served with a notice of attachment and eviction from the respondents’ stand. The notice is dated 28 February 2022.  It is that notice that has triggered the present urgent chamber application wherein stay of execution is sought.  The application is opposed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        The respondents have raised two preliminary issues, namely that the matter is not urgent and that the application has since been overtaken by events on the ground. It is argued that the urgency is self-created as the applicants failed to act when the need to act arose on 15 February 2022 when the applicants’ appeal under case number SC 441/20 was struck off the roll.  The applicants should have known that as a result the respondents would, in the absence of a pending appeal, proceed with eviction. Instead of acting there and then the applicants waited till they were served with the notice of attachment and eviction dated 28 February 2022, thirteen days after SC 441/20 was struck off. I am of the view that the criticism levelled against the applicants in this regard is not warranted. A delay of thirteen days cannot, in the circumstances of this case, be regarded as inordinate. The applicants had been to this Court on appeal. They were not sitting on their laurels. The appeal was not dismissed but struck off the roll on a technicality. They are attending at the High Court seeking leave to appeal. Whilst awaiting the results they were served with the notice of eviction. They have reacted swiftly to that notice by filing the present application. I would for those reasons dismiss the preliminary issue and hold that the matter be treated as urgent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        However, the second preliminary issue has merit and is dispositive of the application. The respondents contended that the applicants have been evicted from their stand in terms of an extant eviction order. Mr <i>Biti</i>, for the applicants, has not denied that his clients have been evicted. Instead he sought to<b> </b>argue that the eviction was not effectively carried out as the Messenger of Court only threw out the applicants’ property but left the dwelling shack intact. The implication being that the applicants, having been evicted returned to occupy the shack. It would be remiss of this Court to run along with Mr <i>Biti’s </i>suggestion and reverse an eviction properly executed in terms of a court order on the grounds that the Messenger of Court ought to have destroyed the dwelling shack. What was to be evicted are the applicants and not their shack. I hold therefore that the eviction was effected and that the applicants’ return to the stand is in direct disregard of a lawfully given court order. This Court cannot condone their contemptuous conduct.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        I agree with the respondents that in view of the applicants’ eviction this application has been overtaken by events and has thus been rendered moot. It cannot succeed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        As the applicants are indigent there shall be no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                        </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                        It is ordered as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“The application be and is hereby dismissed with no order as to costs.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Wed, 18 May 2022 09:39:36 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12492 at http://zimlii.org Sibanda v G & G Preserves (Pvt) Ltd and Another (20 of 2022) [2022] ZWBHC 20 (20 January 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/bulawayo-high-court/2022/20 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Sibanda v G &amp; G Preserves (Pvt) Ltd and Another (20 of 2022) [2022] ZWBHC 20 (20 January 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1657" hreflang="en">Stay of Execution</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2134" hreflang="x-default">MINES AND MINERALS</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2269" hreflang="x-default">Urgent Application</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 05/12/2022 - 12:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwbhc/2022/20/2022-zwbhc-20.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=28860">2022-zwbhc-20.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwbhc/2022/20/2022-zwbhc-20.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=144287">2022-zwbhc-20.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HB 20/22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HC 1928/21</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">X REF HC 1925/21</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THEMBA SIBANDA</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Versus</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">G &amp; G PRESERVES (PVT) LTD</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">And</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SHERIFF OF THE HIGH COURT N.O</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">KABASA J</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BULAWAYO 15 DECEMBER 2021 &amp; 20 JANUARY 2022</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Urgent Chamber Application</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Tavengwa</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for the applicant</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ms. M. Sibanda</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for 1<sup>st</sup> respondent</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the 2<sup>nd</sup> respondent</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            <b>KABASA J:   </b>This is an urgent chamber application wherein the applicant seeks the following interim relief:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            “Pending the return date, the applicant is granted the following relief:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The execution of the writ of execution under HC 1430/17 issued on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 by the Registrar of the High Court be and is hereby stayed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 2<sup>nd</sup> respondent be and is hereby interdicted from ejecting applicant from remaining extent Lot B Lower Rangemore, Umguza as per Notice of Removal dated 7<sup>th</sup> December 2021.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The final order sought should the interim relief be granted is:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Certificate of Registration issued by the Ministry of Mines and Mining Development on 29<sup>th</sup> November 2021 under licence number 025192 BA, registration number 17408 BM in favour of the applicant be and is hereby declared to be valid and binding.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The writ of execution under HC 1430/17 issued by the Registrar of the High Court on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 be and is hereby suspended until such time that applicant’s existing mining rights are lawfully impeached.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1<sup>st</sup> respondent to pay costs of suit on attorney-client scale.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The background facts to the matter are these:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The applicant was in occupation of a piece of land known as remaining extent of Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza, a property owned by the respondent.  The applicant was conducting mining operations thereat.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The respondent then brought an action seeking to evict the applicant from the property and this action was brought under HC 1430/17.  The applicant defended the matter and sought to argue that he was in lawful occupation of the property.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            In a judgment handed down on 21 May 2020 M</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%">ABHIKWA</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US"> J held that the applicant had no lawful authority to be on these premises, the documents from the Ministry of Mines which he believed authorized him to be on these premises did not so authorize him and the description of the property on these documents did not relate to the respondent’s property.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The court’s order in HC 1430/17 is couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“1. That the defendant shall immediately vacate the remaining extent of Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza.</span></span></span></span></p> <ol start="2"><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Failing the above, the Sheriff of Zimbabwe or his lawful deputy shall evict the defendant from the remaining extent of Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant appealed against this judgment and on the date of hearing sought to withdraw the appeal.  The withdrawal was premised on the realization that the judgment in HC 1430/17 was unassailable as the applicant, with hindsight, appreciated that the documents he possessed did not authorize him to occupy the land from which he was to be evicted.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The appeal was subsequently dismissed after the Supreme Court held that it was already seized with the matter and so declined to dispose of it on the basis of a withdrawal.  The dismissal was on 17<sup>th</sup> November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant had, in the meantime, sought to regularize his occupation of the piece of land and under HC 571/21 obtained the following order from T</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%">AKUVA</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US"> J.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“1.       The respondent be and is hereby ordered to immediately furnish applicant with a certificate of registration for 1 x 150 blocks of quarry at the remaining extent Lot “B” Rangemore, Umguza, over the area specified on the survey report dated 30<sup>th</sup> November 2016.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2.         The applicant, after receipt of the certificate of registration referred to in (1) above, be and is hereby authorized to resume mining activities on the 1 x 150 block of quarry at the remaining extent Lot “B” Rangemore, Umguza on the area specified on the survey report dated 30<sup>th</sup> November 2016.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            3.         No order as to costs.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            This order was granted against the Provincial Mining Director and effectively addressed the issue which had led to the decision in HC 1430/17.  The applicant upon granting of the certificate of registration, would now have the authority which he hitherto did not have resulting in his eviction under HC 1430/17.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The Provincial Mining Director, in compliance with the order in HC 571/21 proceeded to grant the applicant the certificate of registration 025192BA on 29 November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Following the granting of this certificate of registration, applicant’s legal practitioners wrote to the respondent’s legal practitioners advising them of this development and further drawing their attention to the fact that, that which the applicant did not have at the time an order for his eviction was granted in HC 1430/17 he now had.  This letter is dated 30<sup>th</sup> November 2021.  On receipt of that letter the respondent obtained a writ of ejectment on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 seeking to have the applicant evicted in terms of the order in HC 1430/17.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The applicant subsequently filed an urgent chamber application under HC 1925/21 in which he sought an interdict against his eviction pending the determination of the matter relating to his authority to be on the land in question.  The gist of that application was that the order in HC 1430/17 was a <i>brutum fulmen</i> as it had been overtaken by events and the final order sought to declare it so.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The application was placed before MOYO J who raised the following as a query.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“I decline to hear the matter on the basis of urgency because the execution of an extant order of court cannot be interfered with except if the order is being challenged either by a rescission or an appeal.  I cannot stop the execution of a lawful order of court which applicant calls a <i>brutum fulmen</i> as that order stands until set aside by a competent court.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            At the time of the hearing of this current application this query had not been communicated to the parties.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Counsel for the respondent proceeded to submit that the applicant had filed a similar application and had failed to disclose material facts in the current application and so the application should be struck off the roll as an earlier similar application had been heard and dismissed. Counsel did not have a copy of the judgment nor the order.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            <i>Mr. Tavengwa</i>, for the applicant, expressed ignorance of that development and an adjournment was granted so the correct position could be verified.  It was then that it turned out that the judge had not granted an order but raised a query which was yet to be communicated to the parties. The file was not with Registry but with the secretaries who were yet to type the judge’s handwritten query which was stapled on the inside cover of the file. It became clear that the application had not been heard and the parties had not appeared before the judge.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            In the meantime a notice of withdrawal had been filed on 13<sup>th</sup> December 2021.  Based on the handwritten query by the judge and the date on the typed query, such withdrawal appears to have been made before the judge’s query was communicated to the parties.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            In her response to the application I am seized with, <i>Ms. Sibanda</i> submitted that the High Court judgment under HC 1430/17 became a Supreme Court judgment upon the dismissal of the appeal on 17<sup>th</sup> November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Counsel further submitted that applicant must first have HC 1430/17 vacated as it is extant and further that in HC 1925/21 M</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%">OYO</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US"> J heard and dismissed a similar application based on same facts.  The applicant could therefore not seek to bring the same application back before a different judge.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Before I called for HC 1925/21 I was of the view that the applicant was seeking to have the same matter adjudicated over by a different judge in the hope that he would get a different outcome.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            However, a reading of HC 1925/21 showed that no hearing was conducted and before the judge’s query was communicated to the parties, the applicant withdrew the application.  I must say I find nothing amiss with an applicant who withdraws a matter before a determination is made.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The learned judge in HC 1925/21 appears to have invoked rule 60 subrule 15 of the High Court Rules, SI 202 of 2021 which provide that:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“In determining the fate of a chamber application, a judge may raise such queries as he or she may consider pertinent to the disposal of the application.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The rules do not preclude the withdrawal of a matter where a query has been raised and a party in addressing such query decides to withdraw the matter.  There is also no legal impediment to a filing of a fresh application attending to or addressing the queries so raised.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">I am of the view that no determination was made in HC1925/21 because there is no court order. There was no definitive order made, either striking the matter off the roll or dismissing it as had been submitted by counsel for the respondent. I am fortified in saying so because the Registrar eventually communicated with the parties and such communication was couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">“I refer to your chamber application which was placed before the Honourable Justice Moyo who commented as follows……………...”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The comment is as already captured elsewhere in this judgment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            It is therefore not correct that the application in HC 1925/21 was heard and dismissed.  The argument that the current application should therefore suffer a still birth is, in the circumstances, misplaced.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The following facts are therefore not in dispute:</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">Under HC 1430/17 the applicant did not have the requisite authority to be on the respondent’s land.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant was ordered to vacate the respondent’s property by a judgment handed down on 21 May 2020.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">An appeal was noted against this judgment which counsel with hindsight sought to withdraw but was however dismissed by the Supreme Court on 17 November 2021.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">Both HC 1430/17 and the Supreme Court decision were not concerned with the certificate of registration subsequently obtained by the applicant post these decisions. </span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">HC 527/21 compelled the Provincial Mining Director to grant the applicant authority to be on the land and upon such issuance of the requisite authority, allowed applicant to resume mining operations on that land.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">HC 527/21 is extant and the certificate of registration issued in compliance with the order in HC 527/21 has not been impugned.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The respondent did not seek the eviction of the applicant until after the applicant had regularized his occupation of the land in question by virtue of the certificate of registration issued by the Provincial Mining Director.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The present application seeks to stop the eviction pending the return date when the issue of the certificate of registration and its validity will be ventilated.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">From the foregoing the point <i>in limine</i> raised by counsel for the respondent has no merit.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">This application was lodged on 13<sup>th</sup> December 2021 after the withdrawal of the one lodged on 8<sup>th</sup> December 2021.  The applicant came to know of the impending eviction on 7<sup>th</sup> December 2021.  There is no doubt the application to halt the impending eviction was made without undue delay.  When the need to act arose, the applicant promptly acted <i>(Kuvarega</i> v <i>Registrar General and Anor</i> 1998 (1) ZLR 188).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">A failure by the court to act would justify the applicant dismissively suggesting “… that it should not bother to act subsequently as the position would have become irreversible and irreversibly so to the prejudice of the applicant.”  (<i>Documents Support Centre P/L</i> v <i>Mapuvire</i> 2006 (2) ZLR 240)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The basis for this application is hinged on the acquisition of the requisite authority to occupy the land which was obtained following the order granted under HC 527/21.  It therefore cannot be said the gist and argument <i>in casu</i> is the same as in HC 1925/21, which application was, in any event, withdrawn.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">Counsel for the respondent did not address the court on the merits of the matter.  An invitation to counsel to address the court on the merits was turned down.  It follows therefore that the submissions made on the merits were not challenged. There is therefore nothing to controvert the applicant’s averment that the Registration Certificate granted on 29 November 2021 authorises him to occupy the land in question, for mining purposes.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant managed to establish a prima facie right which was about to be infringed by the impending eviction.  The applicant submitted that he has heavy machinery on the land which cannot be easily moved and stored elsewhere.  He has nowhere to keep that machinery and he has invested in this mining operation with families eking out a living from such operation.  Eviction by its very nature is disruptive and may also result in damage to property. It therefore cannot be disputed that the fear of irreparable harm is real. More so as this eviction would seek to dismantle operations that have been in existence since 2017, albeit without authority, before the granting of the order in HC 527/21.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant sought to engage the respondent so they could find common ground but such overtures were seemingly spurned as the response came in the form of a warrant of ejectment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">There is therefore no other alternative remedy available to the applicant except the granting of the interim relief so as to halt the eviction.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The balance of convenience favours the granting of the interim relief.  The facts already canvassed are supportive of this finding as the applicant is likely to be prejudiced if evicted whereas the respondent had the judgment in HC 1430/17 for more than a year and had not sought to execute it until receipt of the letter dated 30th November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The requirements for an interim interdict were therefore met (<i>Gold Reef Mining (Pty) Ltd</i> v <i>Mnjiva Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd &amp; Anor</i> HH-631-15)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">      In the result I make the following order:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">“1. Pending the return date, the execution of the writ of eviction under HC 1430/17 issued on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 by the Registrar of the High Court be and is hereby stayed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">2.The 2<sup>nd</sup> respondent be and is hereby interdicted from ejecting the applicant from remaining extent Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza as per the notice of removal dated 7<sup>th</sup> December 2021.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">Mutuso, Taruvinga &amp; Mhiribidi</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">Messrs. Vundhla-Phulu &amp; Partners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-5d2c88ea9dce2693724a6f21a35796d3d9ac1a6172be000c280b9740dd9cfbf4"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HB 20/22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HC 1928/21</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">X REF HC 1925/21</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THEMBA SIBANDA</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Versus</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">G &amp; G PRESERVES (PVT) LTD</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">And</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SHERIFF OF THE HIGH COURT N.O</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">KABASA J</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BULAWAYO 15 DECEMBER 2021 &amp; 20 JANUARY 2022</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Urgent Chamber Application</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Tavengwa</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for the applicant</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ms. M. Sibanda</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for 1<sup>st</sup> respondent</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the 2<sup>nd</sup> respondent</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            <b>KABASA J:   </b>This is an urgent chamber application wherein the applicant seeks the following interim relief:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            “Pending the return date, the applicant is granted the following relief:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The execution of the writ of execution under HC 1430/17 issued on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 by the Registrar of the High Court be and is hereby stayed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 2<sup>nd</sup> respondent be and is hereby interdicted from ejecting applicant from remaining extent Lot B Lower Rangemore, Umguza as per Notice of Removal dated 7<sup>th</sup> December 2021.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The final order sought should the interim relief be granted is:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Certificate of Registration issued by the Ministry of Mines and Mining Development on 29<sup>th</sup> November 2021 under licence number 025192 BA, registration number 17408 BM in favour of the applicant be and is hereby declared to be valid and binding.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The writ of execution under HC 1430/17 issued by the Registrar of the High Court on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 be and is hereby suspended until such time that applicant’s existing mining rights are lawfully impeached.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1<sup>st</sup> respondent to pay costs of suit on attorney-client scale.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The background facts to the matter are these:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The applicant was in occupation of a piece of land known as remaining extent of Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza, a property owned by the respondent.  The applicant was conducting mining operations thereat.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The respondent then brought an action seeking to evict the applicant from the property and this action was brought under HC 1430/17.  The applicant defended the matter and sought to argue that he was in lawful occupation of the property.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            In a judgment handed down on 21 May 2020 M</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%">ABHIKWA</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US"> J held that the applicant had no lawful authority to be on these premises, the documents from the Ministry of Mines which he believed authorized him to be on these premises did not so authorize him and the description of the property on these documents did not relate to the respondent’s property.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The court’s order in HC 1430/17 is couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“1. That the defendant shall immediately vacate the remaining extent of Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza.</span></span></span></span></p> <ol start="2"><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Failing the above, the Sheriff of Zimbabwe or his lawful deputy shall evict the defendant from the remaining extent of Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant appealed against this judgment and on the date of hearing sought to withdraw the appeal.  The withdrawal was premised on the realization that the judgment in HC 1430/17 was unassailable as the applicant, with hindsight, appreciated that the documents he possessed did not authorize him to occupy the land from which he was to be evicted.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The appeal was subsequently dismissed after the Supreme Court held that it was already seized with the matter and so declined to dispose of it on the basis of a withdrawal.  The dismissal was on 17<sup>th</sup> November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant had, in the meantime, sought to regularize his occupation of the piece of land and under HC 571/21 obtained the following order from T</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%">AKUVA</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US"> J.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“1.       The respondent be and is hereby ordered to immediately furnish applicant with a certificate of registration for 1 x 150 blocks of quarry at the remaining extent Lot “B” Rangemore, Umguza, over the area specified on the survey report dated 30<sup>th</sup> November 2016.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2.         The applicant, after receipt of the certificate of registration referred to in (1) above, be and is hereby authorized to resume mining activities on the 1 x 150 block of quarry at the remaining extent Lot “B” Rangemore, Umguza on the area specified on the survey report dated 30<sup>th</sup> November 2016.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            3.         No order as to costs.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            This order was granted against the Provincial Mining Director and effectively addressed the issue which had led to the decision in HC 1430/17.  The applicant upon granting of the certificate of registration, would now have the authority which he hitherto did not have resulting in his eviction under HC 1430/17.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The Provincial Mining Director, in compliance with the order in HC 571/21 proceeded to grant the applicant the certificate of registration 025192BA on 29 November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Following the granting of this certificate of registration, applicant’s legal practitioners wrote to the respondent’s legal practitioners advising them of this development and further drawing their attention to the fact that, that which the applicant did not have at the time an order for his eviction was granted in HC 1430/17 he now had.  This letter is dated 30<sup>th</sup> November 2021.  On receipt of that letter the respondent obtained a writ of ejectment on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 seeking to have the applicant evicted in terms of the order in HC 1430/17.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The applicant subsequently filed an urgent chamber application under HC 1925/21 in which he sought an interdict against his eviction pending the determination of the matter relating to his authority to be on the land in question.  The gist of that application was that the order in HC 1430/17 was a <i>brutum fulmen</i> as it had been overtaken by events and the final order sought to declare it so.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The application was placed before MOYO J who raised the following as a query.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“I decline to hear the matter on the basis of urgency because the execution of an extant order of court cannot be interfered with except if the order is being challenged either by a rescission or an appeal.  I cannot stop the execution of a lawful order of court which applicant calls a <i>brutum fulmen</i> as that order stands until set aside by a competent court.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            At the time of the hearing of this current application this query had not been communicated to the parties.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Counsel for the respondent proceeded to submit that the applicant had filed a similar application and had failed to disclose material facts in the current application and so the application should be struck off the roll as an earlier similar application had been heard and dismissed. Counsel did not have a copy of the judgment nor the order.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            <i>Mr. Tavengwa</i>, for the applicant, expressed ignorance of that development and an adjournment was granted so the correct position could be verified.  It was then that it turned out that the judge had not granted an order but raised a query which was yet to be communicated to the parties. The file was not with Registry but with the secretaries who were yet to type the judge’s handwritten query which was stapled on the inside cover of the file. It became clear that the application had not been heard and the parties had not appeared before the judge.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            In the meantime a notice of withdrawal had been filed on 13<sup>th</sup> December 2021.  Based on the handwritten query by the judge and the date on the typed query, such withdrawal appears to have been made before the judge’s query was communicated to the parties.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            In her response to the application I am seized with, <i>Ms. Sibanda</i> submitted that the High Court judgment under HC 1430/17 became a Supreme Court judgment upon the dismissal of the appeal on 17<sup>th</sup> November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Counsel further submitted that applicant must first have HC 1430/17 vacated as it is extant and further that in HC 1925/21 M</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%">OYO</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US"> J heard and dismissed a similar application based on same facts.  The applicant could therefore not seek to bring the same application back before a different judge.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            Before I called for HC 1925/21 I was of the view that the applicant was seeking to have the same matter adjudicated over by a different judge in the hope that he would get a different outcome.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            However, a reading of HC 1925/21 showed that no hearing was conducted and before the judge’s query was communicated to the parties, the applicant withdrew the application.  I must say I find nothing amiss with an applicant who withdraws a matter before a determination is made.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The learned judge in HC 1925/21 appears to have invoked rule 60 subrule 15 of the High Court Rules, SI 202 of 2021 which provide that:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“In determining the fate of a chamber application, a judge may raise such queries as he or she may consider pertinent to the disposal of the application.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The rules do not preclude the withdrawal of a matter where a query has been raised and a party in addressing such query decides to withdraw the matter.  There is also no legal impediment to a filing of a fresh application attending to or addressing the queries so raised.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">I am of the view that no determination was made in HC1925/21 because there is no court order. There was no definitive order made, either striking the matter off the roll or dismissing it as had been submitted by counsel for the respondent. I am fortified in saying so because the Registrar eventually communicated with the parties and such communication was couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">“I refer to your chamber application which was placed before the Honourable Justice Moyo who commented as follows……………...”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The comment is as already captured elsewhere in this judgment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            It is therefore not correct that the application in HC 1925/21 was heard and dismissed.  The argument that the current application should therefore suffer a still birth is, in the circumstances, misplaced.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">            The following facts are therefore not in dispute:</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">Under HC 1430/17 the applicant did not have the requisite authority to be on the respondent’s land.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant was ordered to vacate the respondent’s property by a judgment handed down on 21 May 2020.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">An appeal was noted against this judgment which counsel with hindsight sought to withdraw but was however dismissed by the Supreme Court on 17 November 2021.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">Both HC 1430/17 and the Supreme Court decision were not concerned with the certificate of registration subsequently obtained by the applicant post these decisions. </span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">HC 527/21 compelled the Provincial Mining Director to grant the applicant authority to be on the land and upon such issuance of the requisite authority, allowed applicant to resume mining operations on that land.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">HC 527/21 is extant and the certificate of registration issued in compliance with the order in HC 527/21 has not been impugned.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The respondent did not seek the eviction of the applicant until after the applicant had regularized his occupation of the land in question by virtue of the certificate of registration issued by the Provincial Mining Director.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The present application seeks to stop the eviction pending the return date when the issue of the certificate of registration and its validity will be ventilated.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">From the foregoing the point <i>in limine</i> raised by counsel for the respondent has no merit.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">This application was lodged on 13<sup>th</sup> December 2021 after the withdrawal of the one lodged on 8<sup>th</sup> December 2021.  The applicant came to know of the impending eviction on 7<sup>th</sup> December 2021.  There is no doubt the application to halt the impending eviction was made without undue delay.  When the need to act arose, the applicant promptly acted <i>(Kuvarega</i> v <i>Registrar General and Anor</i> 1998 (1) ZLR 188).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">A failure by the court to act would justify the applicant dismissively suggesting “… that it should not bother to act subsequently as the position would have become irreversible and irreversibly so to the prejudice of the applicant.”  (<i>Documents Support Centre P/L</i> v <i>Mapuvire</i> 2006 (2) ZLR 240)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The basis for this application is hinged on the acquisition of the requisite authority to occupy the land which was obtained following the order granted under HC 527/21.  It therefore cannot be said the gist and argument <i>in casu</i> is the same as in HC 1925/21, which application was, in any event, withdrawn.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">Counsel for the respondent did not address the court on the merits of the matter.  An invitation to counsel to address the court on the merits was turned down.  It follows therefore that the submissions made on the merits were not challenged. There is therefore nothing to controvert the applicant’s averment that the Registration Certificate granted on 29 November 2021 authorises him to occupy the land in question, for mining purposes.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant managed to establish a prima facie right which was about to be infringed by the impending eviction.  The applicant submitted that he has heavy machinery on the land which cannot be easily moved and stored elsewhere.  He has nowhere to keep that machinery and he has invested in this mining operation with families eking out a living from such operation.  Eviction by its very nature is disruptive and may also result in damage to property. It therefore cannot be disputed that the fear of irreparable harm is real. More so as this eviction would seek to dismantle operations that have been in existence since 2017, albeit without authority, before the granting of the order in HC 527/21.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The applicant sought to engage the respondent so they could find common ground but such overtures were seemingly spurned as the response came in the form of a warrant of ejectment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">There is therefore no other alternative remedy available to the applicant except the granting of the interim relief so as to halt the eviction.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The balance of convenience favours the granting of the interim relief.  The facts already canvassed are supportive of this finding as the applicant is likely to be prejudiced if evicted whereas the respondent had the judgment in HC 1430/17 for more than a year and had not sought to execute it until receipt of the letter dated 30th November 2021.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">The requirements for an interim interdict were therefore met (<i>Gold Reef Mining (Pty) Ltd</i> v <i>Mnjiva Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd &amp; Anor</i> HH-631-15)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">      In the result I make the following order:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">“1. Pending the return date, the execution of the writ of eviction under HC 1430/17 issued on 2<sup>nd</sup> December 2021 by the Registrar of the High Court be and is hereby stayed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:200%" xml:lang="EN-US">2.The 2<sup>nd</sup> respondent be and is hereby interdicted from ejecting the applicant from remaining extent Lot “B” Lower Rangemore, Umguza as per the notice of removal dated 7<sup>th</sup> December 2021.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">Mutuso, Taruvinga &amp; Mhiribidi</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">Messrs. Vundhla-Phulu &amp; Partners</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;MutTimes New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Thu, 12 May 2022 12:23:44 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12473 at http://zimlii.org Parkin v Ncube (114 of 2022) [2022] ZWBHC 114 (28 April 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/bulawayo-high-court/2022/114 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Parkin v Ncube (114 of 2022) [2022] ZWBHC 114 (28 April 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2218" hreflang="x-default">actio rei vindication</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1474" hreflang="en">Prescription</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1592" hreflang="en">Pleadings</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2314" hreflang="x-default">Claim against deceased estate</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2219" hreflang="x-default">ownership of immovable property</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 05/10/2022 - 08:09</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwbhc/2022/114/2022-zwbhc-114.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=48785">2022-zwbhc-114.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwbhc/2022/114/2022-zwbhc-114.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=457207">2022-zwbhc-114.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst text-align-right">HB 114/22</p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst text-align-right">HC 1081/17</p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>GEORGE ROBERT PARKIN </b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>Versus</b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>ELVIN NCUBE</b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DUBE-BANDA J</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BULAWAYO 3, 4 FEBRUARY &amp; 28 APRIL 2022</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>Civil trial </b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i>T. Dube </i>for the plaintiff<i> </i></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i>J. Ndubiwa </i>for the defendant<i> </i> </span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DUBE-BANDA J: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Introduction </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:21.3pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff seeks an eviction order against defendant and all those claiming through him from stand Lot 1 of subdivision B of subdivision B of Deneys situate in the district of Gwanda (property).  The order is sought on the basis of an alleged unlawful occupation of the property by the defendant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:21.3pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the trial the plaintiff testified, and also called one Mr Richard Moyo-Majwabu to corroborate his evidence.  The defendant testified in support of his defence to the plaintiff’s claim and his counter-claim. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Cut to the borne the Plaintiff’s case is that he is the registered owner of the property and the defendant is in unlawful occupation of the property. Defendant’s defence is that plaintiff’s title to the property is tainted with illegality and is a nullity. He contends that he has a valid written contract of sale with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin (seller). Such contract of sale has not been validly cancelled and the deposit he paid had not been refunded.  Defendant contends it was a material term of the contract that the balance of the purchase price would be paid upon production of a certificate of no present interests from the Ministry of Lands. He avers that his occupation of the property is lawful. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In his claim in reconvention defendant contends that he entered into an agreement of sale with the seller in respect of the property, and paid a deposit of US$40 000.00.  It is said the balance of the purchase price was payable upon the fulfilment of the suspensive condition, being the acquisition of a certificate of no present interests from the Ministry of Lands. He prays for an order declaring null and void deed of transfer in favour of the plaintiff, and that the agreement of sale between him and the seller be declared binding.  In his plea in reconvention plaintiff disputes that he had knowledge of the agreement of sale between defendant and the seller. He says he was an innocent third party who purchased the property for value from the executor of the estate of the seller. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the 19 January 2022, plaintiff filed a notice of amendment to his plea in reconvention. In the notice he raised two issues, the first being that in the event there was valid agreement between the defendant and the seller such agreement fails for lack of fulfilment of the condition precedent i.e. in that there was no certificate of no present interests. The second being that the claim in reconvention had prescribed. The notice of amendment was opposed. At the commencement of the trial the notice was withdrawn. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Before dealing with the merits of this trial, I have to put a few issues off the way. Evidence was adduced and the parties closed their respective cases. Counsel requested to file written submissions. I agreed. In his written submissions plaintiff now contends that the defendant’s claim in reconvention has prescribed, that the estate of the seller must have been joined in these proceedings, and that defendant lacks <i>locus standi</i> to make a claim on behalf of the estate of his late wife. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="7"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Regarding the issue of prescription rule 42(1) (a) of the High Court Rules, 2021 defines the purpose of a plea in bar or in abatement, it provides thus: </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As an alternative to pleadings to the merits</span></span></span></u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, a party may within the period allowed for filing any subsequent pleadings take a plea in bar or in abatement where the matter is one of substance <u>which does not involve going into the merits of the case</u> and which, if allowed, will dispose of the case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Prescription is a special plea which must be filed and determined before the merits of the matter. It must be specifically pleaded. After being served with the special plea of prescription defendant had a procedural right to file a replication. See: <i><span style="background:white">Van Brooker v Mudhanda &amp; Another AND Pierce v Mudhanda &amp; Another</span></i></span></span></span><b> </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SC 5/18. In <i>casu</i> plaintiff did not file a special plea of prescription, he cannot be permitted to raise this defence in his closing written submissions.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="9"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further plaintiff did not lead evidence regarding his defence of prescription. There was an attempt in the cross examination of the defendant to canvass this issue, which is in adequate. A litigant pleading prescription must adduce evidence to show that the claim has indeed prescribed. In <i><span style="background:white">Van Brooker v Mudhanda &amp; Another AND Pierce v Mudhanda &amp; Another (supra) </span></i><span style="background:white">the court held thus: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It can therefore be accepted as settled that evidence is necessary when disposing of a matter in which a special plea of prescription is raised. The rationale behind this is that where a party raises a special plea as a defence, new facts arise and because of the introduction of fresh facts which did not appear in the declaration, there is need for a court to hear the evidence of the parties where facts are disputed before making a ruling on the plea. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="10"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> This is a case which required evidence to show that the claim in reconvention has prescribed. No such evidence was led. In the result the defence of prescription was irregularly taken and must fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="11"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue of non-joinder of the estate of the Gladys Marjorie Parkin is not fatal to the defendant’s counter claim. This</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> court is able determine the issues or questions in this dispute in so far as they affect the rights and interests of the persons who are parties to this case. See: Rule 32(11) of the High Court Rules, 2021. The issue of non-joinder was ill taken and must fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the claim in reconvention defendant is not making a claim on behalf of the estate of his late wife. He is seeking to protect his interest, not that of his late wife. He has <i>locus standi</i> to approach this court in seeking to protect his own interest. The issue of <i>locus stand</i> has been ill-taken and must also fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="13"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">At a pre-trial conference held before a judge in chambers the issues for determination were set-out as the following: </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether there was a valid agreement of sale in respect of the property between the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and the defendant.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the transfer of the property into plaintiff’s name was done fraudulently and unlawful. </span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the plaintiff is entitled to the relief he seeks. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Onus </span></i></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Issues (i) and (ii) on the defendant, and (iii) on the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Plaintiff’s case </span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="14"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I recount in brief the evidence led at the trial.  Plaintiff testified in support of his case. His evidence is that he is the registered owner of the property. The property was previously owned by his aunt the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, who died in 2013. His uncle George Parkin told him that the property was for sale. In 2016 he contacted the executor of the estate of the seller to enquire about the sale of the property. The executor of the estate was one Mr Moyo-Majwabu. The executor confirmed that the property was for sale, and he then purchased the property for US$50 000.00. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="15"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the time of the sale defendant was staying at the property. The plaintiff testified that he is the owner of the property and defendant has no right to be at the property. He gave him notice to vacate the property. When he did not vacate he sued out a summons for his eviction. He does not know that defendant bought the property from the previous owner. He has no knowledge of the agreement of sale between defendant and the previous owner. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="16"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In cross examination the plaintiff testified that he purchased the property in 2016. Defendant is in occupation of the property without his consent. He could not dispute that defendant had been in occupation of the property since 2010. Executor did not inform him that the property was subject of an instalment sale between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. When it was put to him that in 2010, defendant and Gladys Marjorie Parkin entered into an agreement in respect of the property, he said he could not dispute that assertion. When it was put to him that the agreement between defendant and the previous owner was an instalment sale, his answer was he (plaintiff) bought the property from the executor. It was put to him that defendant paid a deposit of US$40 000. 00 as a deposit for the property, his answer was he could not dispute that. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="17"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">was a very good witness, never stating more than he knew or believed and choosing his words with care. He </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">was cross-examined and made several concessions.  At the end of the day I find that he is a credible and truthful witness. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I accept his evidence without reservation. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="18"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 2<sup>nd</sup> witness to testify was Mr Richard Moyo-Majwabu (executor). He is a legal practitioner at James, Moyo-Majwabu and Nyoni, and the executor of the estate of the seller. He testified that the seller approached him and said in 2010 she entered into an agreement of sale with defendant and his wife in respect of the property. The property was sold for USD90 000.00. The purchase price was to be paid by November 2010. Payment was not made as agreed between the parties. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="19"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This witness in his capacity as a legal practitioner assisted the seller to draft a letter to the defendant. The letter is dated 27 February 2013 (Exh. A2).  Exh. A2 was read into the record. It reads thus:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr. Elvin Ncube </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Lot 1. Sub division B </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Gwanda </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the 8<sup>th</sup> September 2010, you and your wife entered into an agreement of sale with me in terms of which I sold to you and your wife the above mentioned piece of land.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The price we agreed to for the piece of land was $90 000.00 and you were supposed to pay the purchase price by the 9<sup>th</sup> November 2010. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Because of your undertaking to pay the full purchase price by the 9<sup>th</sup> November 2010, I and my husband agreed to allow you to effect renovations to the existing structures on the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Since the time of our agreement referred to above, we have asked you many times for payment of the purchase price and you have made numerous promises to pay but you have always failed to honour those promises. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">We now want you to state, in writing, as to when you will be paying the purchase price. We need to finalise this issue soon. Let me hear from you by the 8<sup>th</sup> March 2013. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Yours faithfully </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Gladys Marjorie Parkin</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="20"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This witness testified that the letter was delivered to the defendant. Defendant did not reply the letter. The seller died on the 29 May 2013. This witness was appointed executor dative of the estate of the seller. He was issued with Letters of Administration (Exh. A3). On the 22 November 2013, he placed an advertisement in the Chronicle Newspaper (Exh. A4) calling for all persons having claims against the estate and those persons having in their custody or possession property of the estate to contact him and notify him of their claims or estate property in their possessions.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="21"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the 3<sup>rd</sup> December 2013, he addressed a letter (Exh. A5) to the defendant. In this letter defendant was advised that Gladys Marjorie Parkin had died. He was further advised that before she died the deceased had instructed this witness to draft a letter (Exh.A2) to him wherein a demand of the purchase price of $90 000.00 was made. No payment was received and as a result defendant was being given notice to vacate the property by no later than the 31<sup>st</sup> January 2014, failing which an eviction summons would be sued out without further notice. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="22"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The executor testified that he received a letter (Exh. A6) from <i>Mashayamombe &amp; Co. Attorneys</i> defendant’s legal practitioners. In the letter it was averred that in terms of the agreement the property was sold for USD90 000.00 and a deposit of USD40 000.00 was paid on the 5<sup>th</sup> October 2011. The balance had not been paid. The point was made that defendant will vacate the property on being refunded the USD40 000.00 deposit he paid and compensated for the repairs and improvements to the property valued USD8 000.00. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="23"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Moyo-Majwabu testified that in terms of Exh. A2 defendant was given the 9<sup>th</sup> November 2010 as the deadline to pay the purchase price. He did not pay. No cent was paid towards the purchase price. By failing to pay he breached the agreement entitling the seller to cancel the agreement. Exh. A5 terminated the agreement and defendant was put on notice to vacate the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="24"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">By letter dated 12 February 2014 (Exh. A7) this witness informed the defendant’s legal practitioners that defendant did not pay a cent towards the purchase price. That it is a falsehood that he paid a deposit of USD40 000.00. Defendant was challenged to produce proof of payment. In fact the legal practitioners were advised that defendant had personally visited this witness office and said he tried to pay USD28 000.00, which was declined. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="25"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Moyo-Majwabu testified that in their letter dated 2<sup>nd</sup> September 2014 (Exh. A9), defendant’s legal practitioners attached a copy of a receipt dated 5 October 2011. The receipt was issued to Lucia Midzi, defendant’s late wife. This witness said he was shocked to see what was alleged to be a receipt. He said if the receipt was available in when Exh. A2 was received, defendant was expected to reply and make such receipt available. Again he would have shown this receipt to this witness in reply to Exh. A5. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="26"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The executor testified that after receiving Exh. A5 defendant and his wife visited his office on separate occasions. This was in the beginning of 2014. The wife visited twice pleading for more time to pay the purchase price. At no time did she say she paid a deposit of USD40 000.00 nor produced a receipt. Defendant visited the office once and neither said he paid the USD40 000.00 nor produced a receipt as proof of payment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="27"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that the original of the receipt was never shown to him. In the letter (Exh. A10) this witness said the receipt is a falsehood. A fake and an attempted fraud. Defendant’s legal practitioners were told that the contention that defendant paid a deposit of USD40 000.00 was rejected. Defendant was told to take whatever action he would deem appropriate to protect his interests. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="28"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant did not challenge the rejection of his claim. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="29"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> This witness testified that as the executor he had to finalise the administration of the estate. He decided to sell the property to raise money to pay the creditors. He made an application for authority to sell the property by private treaty in terms of section 120 of the Administration of Estates Act [Chapter 6:01]. The Master of the High Court granted the section 120 authority. Plaintiff offered to buy the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="30"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This witness and the plaintiff entered into an agreement of sale in respect of the property. The price was based on an evaluation report furnished to the Master of the High Court. The plaintiff paid the purchase price and the property was transferred to him. A copy of the deed of transfer in favour of the plaintiff is before court and marked Exh. A1. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="31"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Final Distribution Account of the estate late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was advertised in terms of the requirements of the law. No objections were received and the Account was confirmed by the Master and the estate was closed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="32"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In cross examination this witness testified that the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin did not show him a written agreement of sale. He had not seen Exh. B1. This is a handwritten letter allegedly written and signed by the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. It is dated 8 September 2010. The letter reads as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">To whom it may concern</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Elvin Ncube and Lucia Midzi have purchased Lot 1 of subdivision B of subdivision B of Deneys situate in the district of Gwanda, District. Transfer will be done after payment of the property is made. They are moving to the property immediately to start renovating it for ……</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol start="33"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The witness disputed that Exh. B1 is an agreement. He said an agreement must indicate the purchase price, but Exh. B1 did not state the purchase price. It was put to this witness that all those who were involved in this agreement are deceased except the defendant. He agreed, Gladys Marjorie Parkin, Mr George Parkin and Lucia Midzi are all deceased. This witness accepted that defendant has been in occupation of the property from 2010. He testified that he wrote Exh. A2, and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin signed it. It was suggested to this witness that defendant and his late wife did not receive Exh. A2, his answer was when they visited his office they did not deny having received this letter. Again if Exh. A2 was not received Exh. A6 would have said so. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="34"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> It was put to this witness that when defendant purchased this property it was occupied by artisanal miners. His answer was he had no comment. This witness disputed that the agreement between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was an instalment sale and he referred to Exh. A2. It was put to this witness that the seller had undertaken to obtain a certificate of no present interests from Government, he disagreed. It was put to this witness that the defendant paid a deposit of US$40 000.00, he disagreed. He said when defendant and his wife visited his office the receipt was not produced.  He said defendant did not pay a cent towards the purchase price. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="35"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was suggested to this witness that defendant showed him the receipt. He disagreed. He testified that he did not inform the plaintiff about the defendant. He did not inform plaintiff because the agreement with defendant had been cancelled. Asked what would happen to the deposit paid by the defendant, this witness answered that defendant paid no deposit. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="36"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In re-examination this witness was asked whether Exh. B1 was submitted to him as the executor, his answer was it was not produced. He said the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin said there was an agreement, she did not say whether it was written or not. Asked whether the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was paid the US$40 000.00, he said after her death her husband said no payment was made by the defendant. He said when defendant and his wife visited his office on separate occasions there was no mention of the receipt nor the letter of no present interest from the Government. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="37"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Moyo-Majwabu</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> came across as a witness who had a clear recall of events and was more than a match for the intense cross-examination to which he was subjected. He was a very good witness, clear thinking and obviously very well trained and professional. I accept his evidence without qualification. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="38"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">After the testimony of Mr Richard Moyo-Majwabu plaintiff closed his case.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant’s case </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="39"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Coming to the defendant case I also propose to consider the evidence adduced in turn. Defendant testified in his defence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="40"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant testified that he resides at the property. The property has a main house and three cottages with six rooms each. When he bought the property it was deserted, only occupied by illegal gold miners and people who head cattle. He moved into the property in 2011. When he moved into the property the house had cracks and was dirty. It had no celling. No doors and window panes. There were scrap metals inside the house. He cleared the property, too the scrap to the scrap yard, and kept what he needed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="41"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He entered into a sale agreement with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. He said Exh. B1 was the written agreement. The house was sold to him <i>voetstoots. </i>He was shown a copy of the deed of transfer. The agreement was reduced into writing and the purchase price was USD90 000.00. It was agreed that he would pay a deposit and the balance in instalments. He delayed paying a deposit, but it was eventually paid to the seller. It was paid on the 5<sup>th</sup> October 2011. He paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. He disputed that he told the executor that he offered to pay a deposit of US$28 000.00. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="42"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that he was given a receipt as proof of payment. A copy of the receipt is before court and marked Exh. B2. He says payment was made by his late wife. He was present when such payment was made. George Parkin the husband to the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was not present when payment was made and when he was given the receipt. He disputed that the receipt is a fake and a fraud. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="43"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that the seller was supposed to collect a certificate of no present interests from the Ministry of Lands. It was agreed that after the collection of the certificate he would then pay instalments. He did not get the certificate. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="44"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He received a letter from the executor informing him that Gladys Marjorie Parkin had died and that he must move out of the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="45"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He disputed that he saw Exh. A2. He did not know the persons listed in Exh. A2 as having received the letter on his behalf. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="46"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant testified that he visited the office of the executor for two reasons. The first was that his wife went to the office of the executor with a receipt and it was misplaced in that office. The second was to tell the executor that his now late wife was seriously injured in a car accident. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="47"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that he hired people to clean the property. The main house had to be painted. He had to seal the cracks in the main house. He did plumbing works. He constructed a perimeter fence around the property. He connected water to the property. It took him two and a half years to complete the renovations on the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="48"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In cross examination the defendant conceded that he did not hire a professional assessor to evaluate the improvements he allegedly made in the property. He was asked whether Exh. B1 is the agreement of sale with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer was it was not the agreement. Asked whether he entered into a verbal agreement with the late, his answer was most of the agreement was verbal. Asked whether the agreement was verbal, written or both. His answer was part of the agreement was written down and the other part was not written down.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="49"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Again asked whether Exh. B1 was part of the agreement. His answer was it was part of what was agreed between him and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. Asked whether he paid the US$40 000.00, he agreed. Asked when he was supposed to pay the US$40 000.00, he said it was supposed to be paid after the seller had received the certificate of present interest from the Ministry of Lands, but they were delays with the certificate and he ended up paying before the certificate was obtained. Put to him that in his evidence in chief he had testified that only the instalments were payable after the certificate, his answer was it is true he was supposed to pay the balance after the certificate had been obtained.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="50"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked the number of instalments he was supposed to pay after paying the deposit. His answer was there was no specific number of instalments. However the seller had indicated that instalments must be paid within a period of three months. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="51"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified in cross examination that he paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. It was paid in cash. Payment was made by him and his wife. Exh. B2 is the receipt confirming payment. He said the receipt has his wife’s name only. His name was not written on the receipt. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="52"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked whether the certificate of no present interest was important in the agreement. His answer was it was very important. Asked whether the agreement would be legal without the certificate, his answer was since it was a requirement, the absence of a certificate would cause a problem. They were told by the provincial lands officer that a certificate of no present interest was a requirement in such an agreement. Asked whether he produced a certificate of no present interest, his answer was they did not get a certificate. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="53"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was put to him that he received Exh. A2. He disagreed. Asked whether he had the original of Exh. B2, the receipt. His answer was that the original remained in the office of the executor. His late wife left it in the office of the executor. It was put to him that the Mr Moyo-Majwabu denies having seen the original receipt. His answer was that he did not hear him answer that question. When it was suggested to him that the copy of the receipt is fake, he disagreed. Asked whether he handed the original receipt to Mr Moyo-Majwabu, his answer was that it was not him who handed the original receipt. Asked whether he told his legal practitioners that the original receipt was with Mr Moyo-Majwabu, his answer was he told them. When it was suggested to him that he did not give the original receipt to Mr Moyo-Majwabu, his answer was “I gave him the receipt.” </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="54"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked whether plaintiff was present when he was negotiating with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer plaintiff was not present. Asked whether plaintiff was present when he allegedly paid the US$40 000.00, his answer was he was not present. It was put to him that plaintiff was not aware of the agreement with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer was “he is denying.” When put to him that plaintiff had no knowledge of the agreement, his answer was plaintiff said “I acquired his grandmother’s property.” </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="55"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked whether he filed a claim for his US$40 000.00 against the estate of the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. His answer was “I did not see that.” It was put to him that he was informed that she died. He agreed. When put to him that the executor invited him and his legal practitioners to file a claim, his answer was he was not sure of that. It was put to him that he and his legal practitioners failed to file a claim, he said that was not true. Asked whether a claim was made, he said he was not sure. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="56"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In re-examination defendant testified that he did not see the executor’s advertisement for creditors and debtors, i.e. Exh. A4. Asked the reason he did not lodge a claim against the estate of the Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer was he resides 2km from Gwanda town. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="57"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant was untruthful. All in all he was totally unreliable and his testimony is not worthy of any belief. For example in his evidence in chief he testified that only the instalments were payable after the certificate had been obtained. In cross examination he made a turn and said he was supposed to be pay the deposit after the seller had received the certificate but they were delays with the certificate and he ended up paying before the certificate was obtained. He says the balance was supposed to be paid in instalments, but does not say the amounts of those instalment payments. His evidence was riddled with falsehoods. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="58"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the conclusion of his testimony defendant closed his case. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="59"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I now turn to consider the issues for determination as set out in the pre-trial conference minute. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether there was a valid agreement of sale in respect of the property between the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and the defendant</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="60"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Plaintiff contends that the agreement of sale between the defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin is in conflict with section 3 of the Land Acquisition Disposal of Rural Land Regulation 1999 </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">(S.I. 287/99)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">. It is argued that the agreement is illegal, <i>null</i> and void.  This contention is anchored on the submission that the property subject to the agreement of sale is rural land, and that such agreement was not preceded by the issuing of a certificate of no present interest by the Ministry of Lands. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="61"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In terms of section 2 of the Land Acquisition Act [Chapter 20:10] “rural land” means any land other than land which is (<i>a</i>) Communal Land; or (<i>b</i>) in a municipal area, town area or local government area; (<i>c</i>) in a town ward of a rural district council or an area declared to be a specified area in terms of the Rural District Councils Act [<i>Chapter 29:13</i>]; or  (<i>d</i>) in the area of any township as defined in the Land Survey Act [<i>Chapter 20:12</i>]; or (<i>e</i>) State land the layout of which has been approved in terms of section 43 of the Regional, Town and Country Planning Act [<i>Chapter 29:12</i>]; or  (<i>f</i>) State land specified in the Third Schedule to the Agricultural and Rural Development Authority Act [<i>Chapter 18:01</i>]; “specially Gazetted land” means agricultural land referred to in section 16B(1)(<i>a</i>)(i)(ii) or (iii) of the Constitution, and the term “specially Gazetted shall be construed accordingly; “structure” includes any wall, fence, dam, earthwork, well, borehole or other permanent improvement on or to land.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="62"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">The property subject to the sale agreement is rural land. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant testified that it was agreed between the parties that the seller had to obtain a certificate of no present interest from the Ministry of Lands. In cross-examination defendant was asked as to when he was supposed to pay the deposit US$40 000.00, he said it was supposed to be paid after the seller had received the certificate of no present interest from the Ministry of Lands, but they were delays with the certificate and he ended up paying before the certificate was obtained. Even by his own version defendant accepts that the property is rural land. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="63"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Lot 1 of subdivision B of Deneys measuring 53, 9010 hectares is rural land. Its sale must comply with section 3 of the Land Acquisition Disposal of Rural land Regulations 1999 (S.I. 287/99). Section provides thus: </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">3. Minister to be given right of first refusal on sale of rural land</span></span></i></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(1) Subject to these regulations, the owner of any rural land, other than the State, a local authority or a statutory body,<u> shall not sell the land unless he has offered to sell it to the Minister</u> and—</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>a</i>) the Minister has issued him with a certificate of no present interest; or</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>b</i>) the Minister has not responded to the offer within the ninety-day period specified in subsection (1) of section 5.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(2) An offer in terms of subsection (1) shall be in writing and shall—</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>a</i>) specify the price which the owner is prepared to accept for the rural land concerned; and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>b</i>) describe the nature and extent of the rural land concerned and any buildings or other improvements on the land; and shall be accompanied by a copy of the title deed of the land. (My emphasis). </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="64"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">By operation of law a sale of rural land must comply with the section 3 of the S.I. 287/99. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="65"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant in his claim in reconvention avers that it was a material term of the contract that the balance of the purchase price would be payable upon fulfilment of a suspensive condition, being the acquisition of a certificate of no present interest from the Ministry of Lands.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="66"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In his written submissions defendant contends that the agreement between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was subject to the seller acquiring a certificate of no present interest. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="67"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In not so many words defendant accepts that a certificate of no present was a prerequisite for the sale. In his written submissions plaintiff contends that the agreement of sale between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was invalid for want of a certificate of no present interest. It is argued that without a certificate there was no valid sale agreement at law.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="68"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">There is no evidence that a certificate of no present interest was applied for and obtained before the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and defendant purported to enter into an agreement of sale in respect of the property. The <i>onus </i>is on the defendant to prove that there was a valid agreement of sale. Defendant has not adduced evidence to prove that there was valid agreement of sale between him and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. The agreement was invalid for want of a certificate of no present interest. The issue whether there was a valid agreement of sale in respect of the property between the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and the defendant is answered in favour of the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the transfer of the property into plaintiff’s name was done fraudulently and unlawful</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="69"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">I have already found that the agreement between the defendant and the seller was invalid. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Even if I am to assume at this stage, for present purposes only, that the agreement was valid, still </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">it was lawfully cancelled. The following are the reasons for this finding. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="70"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Mr Moyo-Majwabu was the executor dative of the estate of the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. He sought a section 120 of the Administration of Estates Act authority from the Master of the High Court to dispose of the property by private treaty, and such authority was granted. This evidence was not controverted. He entered into an agreement of sale with the plaintiff in respect of the property. Plaintiff purchased the property and it was then transferred to him. Plaintiff holds a deed of transfer No. 1804/2016 in respect of the property. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="71"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Cut to the borne defendant’s contention is that he was the first purchaser and his agreement of sale with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was not terminated. Therefore, when plaintiff entered into an agreement of sale with the executor, the agreement with defendant was extant. Defendant contends that he paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. He produced a copy of a receipt (Exh. B2). He says the balance was due and payable upon the seller producing a certificate of no present interest. The question is did defendant pay the deposit of US440 000.00? </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="72"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">His argument is that Exh. A2 is inadmissible hearsay evidence. When Exh. A2 was produced and received by this court Mr <i>Ndubiwa </i>counsel for the defendant did not object to its admissibility. The issue of its inadmissibility was only raised in written submissions. It is important that when evidence that counsel considers inadmissible is adduced, counsel immediately stands up and objects and outline the grounds of objection. To sit and allow what counsel might be considering inadmissible evidence and then spring a surprise at closing submissions stage is not the best practice of running a trial. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="73"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Anywhere Mr Moyo-Majwabu testified that he received instructions from the seller, and on the basis of those instructions he drafted Exh. A2 and gave it to her to sign.  This evidence was not challenged in cross examination. Mr Moyo-Majwabu</span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> saw, heard or otherwise perceived the statement being made by </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">seller. It is on this ground that Exh. A2 is admissible in terms of section 27(3) (a) of the Civil Evidence Act [Chapter 8:01]. It remains a question of weight. It is important to distinguish issues of admissibility from issues of weight. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="74"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant contends that the deposit was paid on the 5<sup>th</sup> October 2011. Exh. A2 was written on the 27 February 2013. It was received on the 28 February 2013. Exh. A2 is clear that no payment was made towards the purchase price. If defendant had paid the US$40 000.00 he surely could have approached the seller and produced his receipt. He received a letter dated 3<sup>rd</sup> December 2013 (Exh. A5) from <i>James, Moyo-Majwabu and Nyoni </i>advising him that he had not paid the purchase price and giving him notice to vacate. He instructs his legal practitioners to reply, but conspicuously does not attach the receipt (Exh. B2) to prove that he paid US$40 000. 00. He visits the executor’s office, he does not tell him that he paid US$40 000.00. He tells the executor that he wanted to pay US$28 000.00, but it was refused. His wife twice visits the executor and does not say she paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. According to the executor she was merely pleading that they be given more time to raise the purchase price. These are not the actions of a person who had paid in cash a huge amount of US$40 000.00. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="75"><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant in an attempt to cover up his tracks he testified that he did not receive Exh. A2, and that his late wife left the original receipt in the executor’s office. If he had not received the letter (Exh. A2) his legal practitioners would have said so in their letter dated 7 February 2014 (Exh. A6). Again if his wife had left the original receipt in the executor’s office, his lawyers would have said so in the same letter. He does not even explain where he got the copy of the receipt (Exh. B2), who photocopied it and for what purpose. The copy was not certified a true and correct copy of the original. The receipt is just a fake.  A façade. A false creation calculated to mislead. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="76"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is clear that the denial that he received Exh. A2 and that the original of the receipt (Exh. B2) was left in the executor’s office are just after-thoughts by the defendant. Exh. A2 shows that defendant did not pay any amount towards the purchase price. He breached a material term of the agreement and the agreement was terminated. He was given notice to vacate.  He did not file a claim against the estate of the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="77"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The executor was at large to sell the property to the plaintiff. The executor obtained a section 120 authority. Prepared a final distribution account. Defendant did not file an objection to the account. The Master confirmed the account. Without an objection there was no impediment to the sale of the property. There is no basis to allege that the transfer of the property to the plaintiff was done fraudulently and unlawfully. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">I have made <i>supra</i> that there was no valid agreement of sale between the defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. On this basis alone the transfer of the property to the plaintiff is beyond impeachment.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="79"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In his written submissions defendant contends that there was a double sale in this matter, and that the provisions of the Contractual Penalties Act [Chapter 8:04} are applicable. These issues do not arise. First, there was no double sale in this case. Second, there was no installment sale between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="80"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">The <i>onus</i> is on the defendant to show that the transfer of the property to the plaintiff was fraudulent and unlawful. Defendant has failed to discharge such <i>onus</i> of proof. This issue is answered in favor of the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the plaintiff is entitled to the relief he seeks </span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="81"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff seeks the eviction of the defendant from the property in terms of the <i>rei vindicatio.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="82"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The <i>rei vindicatio </i>is premised on the notion that an owner may not be deprived of his or her property against his or her will, and is entitled to recover property from any person who retains possession of it without his or her consent. Therefore, no other person may withhold property from the owner unless he or she is vested with some right enforceable against the owner such as a right of retention against the owner or a contractual right. It is trite law that possession should also be lawful in order to be a valid defence against the <i>rei vindicatio</i>. Our law calls for ruthless vindication and protection of the right of ownership. See: <i>Nzara &amp; Ors. v Kashumba N.O. &amp; Ors.</i> SC 18/18; <i>Alspite Investments (Pvt) Ltd v Westerhoff </i>2009 (2) ZLR 236.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <ol start="83"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Authorities show that an owner who institutes the <i>rei vindicatio </i>is required to allege and prove that- </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">he or she is the owner of the thing;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the thing was in the possession of the defendant at the commencement of the action; and </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the thing which is vindicated is still in existence and clearly identifiable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The onus to establish any right to retain possession of the thing always rests on the defendant as long as the owner does not go beyond alleging his or her ownership and the fact that the thing is in the possession of the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="84"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>casu </i>the property is registered in the name of the plaintiff. He has real right to the property. Exh. A1 is a copy of the deed of transfer. Defendant is in possession of the property. Defendant has not established any right of retention. He had no valid agreement with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. Even if the agreement was valid, it was lawfully cancelled. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="85"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the circumstances plaintiff’s claim against the defendant must succeed. Defendant’s counter claim must fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="86"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The general rule in matters of costs is that the successful party should be given its costs, and this rule should not be departed from except where there are good grounds for doing so. I can think of no reason why I should deviate from this general rule. I therefore intend awarding costs against the defendant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="87"><li style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the summons costs are sought against on the scale as between legal practitioner and client.   It is trite law that costs are in the discretion of the court to be exercised judicially upon a consideration of the relevant facts and must be fair to the parties</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">. Defendant took advantage of the fact that of the four persons who had something to do with this matter, three have since died, the seller, her husband and defendant’s wife. He is the only one who is alive. He then peddled falsehood that he and his wife paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. Produced a fake receipt. Lied that his late wife left the original receipt in the office of the executor. He crafted a strategy to take advantage of the seller because she is late. This is reprehensible conduct. This is unworthy conduct. This is conduct that deserves of censure. Costs on a legal practitioner and client scale are warranted in this matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In the result, it is ordered that: </span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s claim succeeds with costs on a legal practitioner and client scale.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant’s claim in reconvention is dismissed with costs on a legal practitioner and client scale. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant and all those claiming occupation through him vacate Lot 1 of subdivision B of Deneys measuring 53, 9010 hectares within 14 days of this order, failing which the Sheriff or his lawful deputy be and is hereby authorised to eject defendant from the property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">James, Moyo-Majwabu &amp; Nyoni </span></span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">plaintiff’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="line-height:115%" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="color:black">Mashayamombe &amp; Co. Attorneys </span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="line-height:115%" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="color:black">defendant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-c012a89361ecfeca1e66907083645b5cc559fd7ead270b0493fbd3c24d01efd9"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst text-align-right">HB 114/22</p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst text-align-right">HC 1081/17</p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>GEORGE ROBERT PARKIN </b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>Versus</b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>ELVIN NCUBE</b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DUBE-BANDA J</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BULAWAYO 3, 4 FEBRUARY &amp; 28 APRIL 2022</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>Civil trial </b></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i>T. Dube </i>for the plaintiff<i> </i></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i>J. Ndubiwa </i>for the defendant<i> </i> </span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DUBE-BANDA J: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Introduction </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:21.3pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff seeks an eviction order against defendant and all those claiming through him from stand Lot 1 of subdivision B of subdivision B of Deneys situate in the district of Gwanda (property).  The order is sought on the basis of an alleged unlawful occupation of the property by the defendant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:21.3pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the trial the plaintiff testified, and also called one Mr Richard Moyo-Majwabu to corroborate his evidence.  The defendant testified in support of his defence to the plaintiff’s claim and his counter-claim. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Cut to the borne the Plaintiff’s case is that he is the registered owner of the property and the defendant is in unlawful occupation of the property. Defendant’s defence is that plaintiff’s title to the property is tainted with illegality and is a nullity. He contends that he has a valid written contract of sale with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin (seller). Such contract of sale has not been validly cancelled and the deposit he paid had not been refunded.  Defendant contends it was a material term of the contract that the balance of the purchase price would be paid upon production of a certificate of no present interests from the Ministry of Lands. He avers that his occupation of the property is lawful. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In his claim in reconvention defendant contends that he entered into an agreement of sale with the seller in respect of the property, and paid a deposit of US$40 000.00.  It is said the balance of the purchase price was payable upon the fulfilment of the suspensive condition, being the acquisition of a certificate of no present interests from the Ministry of Lands. He prays for an order declaring null and void deed of transfer in favour of the plaintiff, and that the agreement of sale between him and the seller be declared binding.  In his plea in reconvention plaintiff disputes that he had knowledge of the agreement of sale between defendant and the seller. He says he was an innocent third party who purchased the property for value from the executor of the estate of the seller. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the 19 January 2022, plaintiff filed a notice of amendment to his plea in reconvention. In the notice he raised two issues, the first being that in the event there was valid agreement between the defendant and the seller such agreement fails for lack of fulfilment of the condition precedent i.e. in that there was no certificate of no present interests. The second being that the claim in reconvention had prescribed. The notice of amendment was opposed. At the commencement of the trial the notice was withdrawn. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Before dealing with the merits of this trial, I have to put a few issues off the way. Evidence was adduced and the parties closed their respective cases. Counsel requested to file written submissions. I agreed. In his written submissions plaintiff now contends that the defendant’s claim in reconvention has prescribed, that the estate of the seller must have been joined in these proceedings, and that defendant lacks <i>locus standi</i> to make a claim on behalf of the estate of his late wife. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="7"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Regarding the issue of prescription rule 42(1) (a) of the High Court Rules, 2021 defines the purpose of a plea in bar or in abatement, it provides thus: </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As an alternative to pleadings to the merits</span></span></span></u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, a party may within the period allowed for filing any subsequent pleadings take a plea in bar or in abatement where the matter is one of substance <u>which does not involve going into the merits of the case</u> and which, if allowed, will dispose of the case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Prescription is a special plea which must be filed and determined before the merits of the matter. It must be specifically pleaded. After being served with the special plea of prescription defendant had a procedural right to file a replication. See: <i><span style="background:white">Van Brooker v Mudhanda &amp; Another AND Pierce v Mudhanda &amp; Another</span></i></span></span></span><b> </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SC 5/18. In <i>casu</i> plaintiff did not file a special plea of prescription, he cannot be permitted to raise this defence in his closing written submissions.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="9"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further plaintiff did not lead evidence regarding his defence of prescription. There was an attempt in the cross examination of the defendant to canvass this issue, which is in adequate. A litigant pleading prescription must adduce evidence to show that the claim has indeed prescribed. In <i><span style="background:white">Van Brooker v Mudhanda &amp; Another AND Pierce v Mudhanda &amp; Another (supra) </span></i><span style="background:white">the court held thus: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It can therefore be accepted as settled that evidence is necessary when disposing of a matter in which a special plea of prescription is raised. The rationale behind this is that where a party raises a special plea as a defence, new facts arise and because of the introduction of fresh facts which did not appear in the declaration, there is need for a court to hear the evidence of the parties where facts are disputed before making a ruling on the plea. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="10"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> This is a case which required evidence to show that the claim in reconvention has prescribed. No such evidence was led. In the result the defence of prescription was irregularly taken and must fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="11"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue of non-joinder of the estate of the Gladys Marjorie Parkin is not fatal to the defendant’s counter claim. This</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> court is able determine the issues or questions in this dispute in so far as they affect the rights and interests of the persons who are parties to this case. See: Rule 32(11) of the High Court Rules, 2021. The issue of non-joinder was ill taken and must fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the claim in reconvention defendant is not making a claim on behalf of the estate of his late wife. He is seeking to protect his interest, not that of his late wife. He has <i>locus standi</i> to approach this court in seeking to protect his own interest. The issue of <i>locus stand</i> has been ill-taken and must also fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="13"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">At a pre-trial conference held before a judge in chambers the issues for determination were set-out as the following: </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether there was a valid agreement of sale in respect of the property between the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and the defendant.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the transfer of the property into plaintiff’s name was done fraudulently and unlawful. </span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the plaintiff is entitled to the relief he seeks. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Onus </span></i></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:72px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Issues (i) and (ii) on the defendant, and (iii) on the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Plaintiff’s case </span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="14"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I recount in brief the evidence led at the trial.  Plaintiff testified in support of his case. His evidence is that he is the registered owner of the property. The property was previously owned by his aunt the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, who died in 2013. His uncle George Parkin told him that the property was for sale. In 2016 he contacted the executor of the estate of the seller to enquire about the sale of the property. The executor of the estate was one Mr Moyo-Majwabu. The executor confirmed that the property was for sale, and he then purchased the property for US$50 000.00. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="15"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the time of the sale defendant was staying at the property. The plaintiff testified that he is the owner of the property and defendant has no right to be at the property. He gave him notice to vacate the property. When he did not vacate he sued out a summons for his eviction. He does not know that defendant bought the property from the previous owner. He has no knowledge of the agreement of sale between defendant and the previous owner. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="16"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In cross examination the plaintiff testified that he purchased the property in 2016. Defendant is in occupation of the property without his consent. He could not dispute that defendant had been in occupation of the property since 2010. Executor did not inform him that the property was subject of an instalment sale between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. When it was put to him that in 2010, defendant and Gladys Marjorie Parkin entered into an agreement in respect of the property, he said he could not dispute that assertion. When it was put to him that the agreement between defendant and the previous owner was an instalment sale, his answer was he (plaintiff) bought the property from the executor. It was put to him that defendant paid a deposit of US$40 000. 00 as a deposit for the property, his answer was he could not dispute that. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="17"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">was a very good witness, never stating more than he knew or believed and choosing his words with care. He </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">was cross-examined and made several concessions.  At the end of the day I find that he is a credible and truthful witness. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I accept his evidence without reservation. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="18"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 2<sup>nd</sup> witness to testify was Mr Richard Moyo-Majwabu (executor). He is a legal practitioner at James, Moyo-Majwabu and Nyoni, and the executor of the estate of the seller. He testified that the seller approached him and said in 2010 she entered into an agreement of sale with defendant and his wife in respect of the property. The property was sold for USD90 000.00. The purchase price was to be paid by November 2010. Payment was not made as agreed between the parties. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="19"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This witness in his capacity as a legal practitioner assisted the seller to draft a letter to the defendant. The letter is dated 27 February 2013 (Exh. A2).  Exh. A2 was read into the record. It reads thus:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr. Elvin Ncube </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Lot 1. Sub division B </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Gwanda </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the 8<sup>th</sup> September 2010, you and your wife entered into an agreement of sale with me in terms of which I sold to you and your wife the above mentioned piece of land.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The price we agreed to for the piece of land was $90 000.00 and you were supposed to pay the purchase price by the 9<sup>th</sup> November 2010. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Because of your undertaking to pay the full purchase price by the 9<sup>th</sup> November 2010, I and my husband agreed to allow you to effect renovations to the existing structures on the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Since the time of our agreement referred to above, we have asked you many times for payment of the purchase price and you have made numerous promises to pay but you have always failed to honour those promises. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">We now want you to state, in writing, as to when you will be paying the purchase price. We need to finalise this issue soon. Let me hear from you by the 8<sup>th</sup> March 2013. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Yours faithfully </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Gladys Marjorie Parkin</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="20"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This witness testified that the letter was delivered to the defendant. Defendant did not reply the letter. The seller died on the 29 May 2013. This witness was appointed executor dative of the estate of the seller. He was issued with Letters of Administration (Exh. A3). On the 22 November 2013, he placed an advertisement in the Chronicle Newspaper (Exh. A4) calling for all persons having claims against the estate and those persons having in their custody or possession property of the estate to contact him and notify him of their claims or estate property in their possessions.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="21"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the 3<sup>rd</sup> December 2013, he addressed a letter (Exh. A5) to the defendant. In this letter defendant was advised that Gladys Marjorie Parkin had died. He was further advised that before she died the deceased had instructed this witness to draft a letter (Exh.A2) to him wherein a demand of the purchase price of $90 000.00 was made. No payment was received and as a result defendant was being given notice to vacate the property by no later than the 31<sup>st</sup> January 2014, failing which an eviction summons would be sued out without further notice. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="22"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The executor testified that he received a letter (Exh. A6) from <i>Mashayamombe &amp; Co. Attorneys</i> defendant’s legal practitioners. In the letter it was averred that in terms of the agreement the property was sold for USD90 000.00 and a deposit of USD40 000.00 was paid on the 5<sup>th</sup> October 2011. The balance had not been paid. The point was made that defendant will vacate the property on being refunded the USD40 000.00 deposit he paid and compensated for the repairs and improvements to the property valued USD8 000.00. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="23"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Moyo-Majwabu testified that in terms of Exh. A2 defendant was given the 9<sup>th</sup> November 2010 as the deadline to pay the purchase price. He did not pay. No cent was paid towards the purchase price. By failing to pay he breached the agreement entitling the seller to cancel the agreement. Exh. A5 terminated the agreement and defendant was put on notice to vacate the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="24"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">By letter dated 12 February 2014 (Exh. A7) this witness informed the defendant’s legal practitioners that defendant did not pay a cent towards the purchase price. That it is a falsehood that he paid a deposit of USD40 000.00. Defendant was challenged to produce proof of payment. In fact the legal practitioners were advised that defendant had personally visited this witness office and said he tried to pay USD28 000.00, which was declined. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="25"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Moyo-Majwabu testified that in their letter dated 2<sup>nd</sup> September 2014 (Exh. A9), defendant’s legal practitioners attached a copy of a receipt dated 5 October 2011. The receipt was issued to Lucia Midzi, defendant’s late wife. This witness said he was shocked to see what was alleged to be a receipt. He said if the receipt was available in when Exh. A2 was received, defendant was expected to reply and make such receipt available. Again he would have shown this receipt to this witness in reply to Exh. A5. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="26"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The executor testified that after receiving Exh. A5 defendant and his wife visited his office on separate occasions. This was in the beginning of 2014. The wife visited twice pleading for more time to pay the purchase price. At no time did she say she paid a deposit of USD40 000.00 nor produced a receipt. Defendant visited the office once and neither said he paid the USD40 000.00 nor produced a receipt as proof of payment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="27"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that the original of the receipt was never shown to him. In the letter (Exh. A10) this witness said the receipt is a falsehood. A fake and an attempted fraud. Defendant’s legal practitioners were told that the contention that defendant paid a deposit of USD40 000.00 was rejected. Defendant was told to take whatever action he would deem appropriate to protect his interests. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="28"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant did not challenge the rejection of his claim. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="29"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> This witness testified that as the executor he had to finalise the administration of the estate. He decided to sell the property to raise money to pay the creditors. He made an application for authority to sell the property by private treaty in terms of section 120 of the Administration of Estates Act [Chapter 6:01]. The Master of the High Court granted the section 120 authority. Plaintiff offered to buy the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="30"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This witness and the plaintiff entered into an agreement of sale in respect of the property. The price was based on an evaluation report furnished to the Master of the High Court. The plaintiff paid the purchase price and the property was transferred to him. A copy of the deed of transfer in favour of the plaintiff is before court and marked Exh. A1. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="31"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Final Distribution Account of the estate late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was advertised in terms of the requirements of the law. No objections were received and the Account was confirmed by the Master and the estate was closed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="32"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In cross examination this witness testified that the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin did not show him a written agreement of sale. He had not seen Exh. B1. This is a handwritten letter allegedly written and signed by the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. It is dated 8 September 2010. The letter reads as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">To whom it may concern</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Elvin Ncube and Lucia Midzi have purchased Lot 1 of subdivision B of subdivision B of Deneys situate in the district of Gwanda, District. Transfer will be done after payment of the property is made. They are moving to the property immediately to start renovating it for ……</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol start="33"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The witness disputed that Exh. B1 is an agreement. He said an agreement must indicate the purchase price, but Exh. B1 did not state the purchase price. It was put to this witness that all those who were involved in this agreement are deceased except the defendant. He agreed, Gladys Marjorie Parkin, Mr George Parkin and Lucia Midzi are all deceased. This witness accepted that defendant has been in occupation of the property from 2010. He testified that he wrote Exh. A2, and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin signed it. It was suggested to this witness that defendant and his late wife did not receive Exh. A2, his answer was when they visited his office they did not deny having received this letter. Again if Exh. A2 was not received Exh. A6 would have said so. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="34"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> It was put to this witness that when defendant purchased this property it was occupied by artisanal miners. His answer was he had no comment. This witness disputed that the agreement between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was an instalment sale and he referred to Exh. A2. It was put to this witness that the seller had undertaken to obtain a certificate of no present interests from Government, he disagreed. It was put to this witness that the defendant paid a deposit of US$40 000.00, he disagreed. He said when defendant and his wife visited his office the receipt was not produced.  He said defendant did not pay a cent towards the purchase price. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="35"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was suggested to this witness that defendant showed him the receipt. He disagreed. He testified that he did not inform the plaintiff about the defendant. He did not inform plaintiff because the agreement with defendant had been cancelled. Asked what would happen to the deposit paid by the defendant, this witness answered that defendant paid no deposit. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="36"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In re-examination this witness was asked whether Exh. B1 was submitted to him as the executor, his answer was it was not produced. He said the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin said there was an agreement, she did not say whether it was written or not. Asked whether the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was paid the US$40 000.00, he said after her death her husband said no payment was made by the defendant. He said when defendant and his wife visited his office on separate occasions there was no mention of the receipt nor the letter of no present interest from the Government. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="37"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr Moyo-Majwabu</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> came across as a witness who had a clear recall of events and was more than a match for the intense cross-examination to which he was subjected. He was a very good witness, clear thinking and obviously very well trained and professional. I accept his evidence without qualification. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="38"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">After the testimony of Mr Richard Moyo-Majwabu plaintiff closed his case.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant’s case </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="39"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Coming to the defendant case I also propose to consider the evidence adduced in turn. Defendant testified in his defence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="40"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant testified that he resides at the property. The property has a main house and three cottages with six rooms each. When he bought the property it was deserted, only occupied by illegal gold miners and people who head cattle. He moved into the property in 2011. When he moved into the property the house had cracks and was dirty. It had no celling. No doors and window panes. There were scrap metals inside the house. He cleared the property, too the scrap to the scrap yard, and kept what he needed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="41"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He entered into a sale agreement with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. He said Exh. B1 was the written agreement. The house was sold to him <i>voetstoots. </i>He was shown a copy of the deed of transfer. The agreement was reduced into writing and the purchase price was USD90 000.00. It was agreed that he would pay a deposit and the balance in instalments. He delayed paying a deposit, but it was eventually paid to the seller. It was paid on the 5<sup>th</sup> October 2011. He paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. He disputed that he told the executor that he offered to pay a deposit of US$28 000.00. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="42"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that he was given a receipt as proof of payment. A copy of the receipt is before court and marked Exh. B2. He says payment was made by his late wife. He was present when such payment was made. George Parkin the husband to the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was not present when payment was made and when he was given the receipt. He disputed that the receipt is a fake and a fraud. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="43"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that the seller was supposed to collect a certificate of no present interests from the Ministry of Lands. It was agreed that after the collection of the certificate he would then pay instalments. He did not get the certificate. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="44"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He received a letter from the executor informing him that Gladys Marjorie Parkin had died and that he must move out of the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="45"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He disputed that he saw Exh. A2. He did not know the persons listed in Exh. A2 as having received the letter on his behalf. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="46"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant testified that he visited the office of the executor for two reasons. The first was that his wife went to the office of the executor with a receipt and it was misplaced in that office. The second was to tell the executor that his now late wife was seriously injured in a car accident. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="47"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified that he hired people to clean the property. The main house had to be painted. He had to seal the cracks in the main house. He did plumbing works. He constructed a perimeter fence around the property. He connected water to the property. It took him two and a half years to complete the renovations on the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="48"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In cross examination the defendant conceded that he did not hire a professional assessor to evaluate the improvements he allegedly made in the property. He was asked whether Exh. B1 is the agreement of sale with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer was it was not the agreement. Asked whether he entered into a verbal agreement with the late, his answer was most of the agreement was verbal. Asked whether the agreement was verbal, written or both. His answer was part of the agreement was written down and the other part was not written down.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="49"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Again asked whether Exh. B1 was part of the agreement. His answer was it was part of what was agreed between him and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. Asked whether he paid the US$40 000.00, he agreed. Asked when he was supposed to pay the US$40 000.00, he said it was supposed to be paid after the seller had received the certificate of present interest from the Ministry of Lands, but they were delays with the certificate and he ended up paying before the certificate was obtained. Put to him that in his evidence in chief he had testified that only the instalments were payable after the certificate, his answer was it is true he was supposed to pay the balance after the certificate had been obtained.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="50"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked the number of instalments he was supposed to pay after paying the deposit. His answer was there was no specific number of instalments. However the seller had indicated that instalments must be paid within a period of three months. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="51"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">He testified in cross examination that he paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. It was paid in cash. Payment was made by him and his wife. Exh. B2 is the receipt confirming payment. He said the receipt has his wife’s name only. His name was not written on the receipt. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="52"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked whether the certificate of no present interest was important in the agreement. His answer was it was very important. Asked whether the agreement would be legal without the certificate, his answer was since it was a requirement, the absence of a certificate would cause a problem. They were told by the provincial lands officer that a certificate of no present interest was a requirement in such an agreement. Asked whether he produced a certificate of no present interest, his answer was they did not get a certificate. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="53"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It was put to him that he received Exh. A2. He disagreed. Asked whether he had the original of Exh. B2, the receipt. His answer was that the original remained in the office of the executor. His late wife left it in the office of the executor. It was put to him that the Mr Moyo-Majwabu denies having seen the original receipt. His answer was that he did not hear him answer that question. When it was suggested to him that the copy of the receipt is fake, he disagreed. Asked whether he handed the original receipt to Mr Moyo-Majwabu, his answer was that it was not him who handed the original receipt. Asked whether he told his legal practitioners that the original receipt was with Mr Moyo-Majwabu, his answer was he told them. When it was suggested to him that he did not give the original receipt to Mr Moyo-Majwabu, his answer was “I gave him the receipt.” </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="54"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked whether plaintiff was present when he was negotiating with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer plaintiff was not present. Asked whether plaintiff was present when he allegedly paid the US$40 000.00, his answer was he was not present. It was put to him that plaintiff was not aware of the agreement with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer was “he is denying.” When put to him that plaintiff had no knowledge of the agreement, his answer was plaintiff said “I acquired his grandmother’s property.” </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="55"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Asked whether he filed a claim for his US$40 000.00 against the estate of the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. His answer was “I did not see that.” It was put to him that he was informed that she died. He agreed. When put to him that the executor invited him and his legal practitioners to file a claim, his answer was he was not sure of that. It was put to him that he and his legal practitioners failed to file a claim, he said that was not true. Asked whether a claim was made, he said he was not sure. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="56"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In re-examination defendant testified that he did not see the executor’s advertisement for creditors and debtors, i.e. Exh. A4. Asked the reason he did not lodge a claim against the estate of the Gladys Marjorie Parkin, his answer was he resides 2km from Gwanda town. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="57"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The defendant was untruthful. All in all he was totally unreliable and his testimony is not worthy of any belief. For example in his evidence in chief he testified that only the instalments were payable after the certificate had been obtained. In cross examination he made a turn and said he was supposed to be pay the deposit after the seller had received the certificate but they were delays with the certificate and he ended up paying before the certificate was obtained. He says the balance was supposed to be paid in instalments, but does not say the amounts of those instalment payments. His evidence was riddled with falsehoods. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="58"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the conclusion of his testimony defendant closed his case. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="59"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I now turn to consider the issues for determination as set out in the pre-trial conference minute. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether there was a valid agreement of sale in respect of the property between the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and the defendant</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="60"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Plaintiff contends that the agreement of sale between the defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin is in conflict with section 3 of the Land Acquisition Disposal of Rural Land Regulation 1999 </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">(S.I. 287/99)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">. It is argued that the agreement is illegal, <i>null</i> and void.  This contention is anchored on the submission that the property subject to the agreement of sale is rural land, and that such agreement was not preceded by the issuing of a certificate of no present interest by the Ministry of Lands. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="61"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In terms of section 2 of the Land Acquisition Act [Chapter 20:10] “rural land” means any land other than land which is (<i>a</i>) Communal Land; or (<i>b</i>) in a municipal area, town area or local government area; (<i>c</i>) in a town ward of a rural district council or an area declared to be a specified area in terms of the Rural District Councils Act [<i>Chapter 29:13</i>]; or  (<i>d</i>) in the area of any township as defined in the Land Survey Act [<i>Chapter 20:12</i>]; or (<i>e</i>) State land the layout of which has been approved in terms of section 43 of the Regional, Town and Country Planning Act [<i>Chapter 29:12</i>]; or  (<i>f</i>) State land specified in the Third Schedule to the Agricultural and Rural Development Authority Act [<i>Chapter 18:01</i>]; “specially Gazetted land” means agricultural land referred to in section 16B(1)(<i>a</i>)(i)(ii) or (iii) of the Constitution, and the term “specially Gazetted shall be construed accordingly; “structure” includes any wall, fence, dam, earthwork, well, borehole or other permanent improvement on or to land.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="62"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">The property subject to the sale agreement is rural land. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant testified that it was agreed between the parties that the seller had to obtain a certificate of no present interest from the Ministry of Lands. In cross-examination defendant was asked as to when he was supposed to pay the deposit US$40 000.00, he said it was supposed to be paid after the seller had received the certificate of no present interest from the Ministry of Lands, but they were delays with the certificate and he ended up paying before the certificate was obtained. Even by his own version defendant accepts that the property is rural land. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="63"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Lot 1 of subdivision B of Deneys measuring 53, 9010 hectares is rural land. Its sale must comply with section 3 of the Land Acquisition Disposal of Rural land Regulations 1999 (S.I. 287/99). Section provides thus: </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">3. Minister to be given right of first refusal on sale of rural land</span></span></i></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(1) Subject to these regulations, the owner of any rural land, other than the State, a local authority or a statutory body,<u> shall not sell the land unless he has offered to sell it to the Minister</u> and—</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>a</i>) the Minister has issued him with a certificate of no present interest; or</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>b</i>) the Minister has not responded to the offer within the ninety-day period specified in subsection (1) of section 5.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(2) An offer in terms of subsection (1) shall be in writing and shall—</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>a</i>) specify the price which the owner is prepared to accept for the rural land concerned; and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:10.5pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(<i>b</i>) describe the nature and extent of the rural land concerned and any buildings or other improvements on the land; and shall be accompanied by a copy of the title deed of the land. (My emphasis). </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="64"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">By operation of law a sale of rural land must comply with the section 3 of the S.I. 287/99. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="65"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant in his claim in reconvention avers that it was a material term of the contract that the balance of the purchase price would be payable upon fulfilment of a suspensive condition, being the acquisition of a certificate of no present interest from the Ministry of Lands.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="66"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In his written submissions defendant contends that the agreement between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was subject to the seller acquiring a certificate of no present interest. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="67"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In not so many words defendant accepts that a certificate of no present was a prerequisite for the sale. In his written submissions plaintiff contends that the agreement of sale between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was invalid for want of a certificate of no present interest. It is argued that without a certificate there was no valid sale agreement at law.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="68"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">There is no evidence that a certificate of no present interest was applied for and obtained before the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and defendant purported to enter into an agreement of sale in respect of the property. The <i>onus </i>is on the defendant to prove that there was a valid agreement of sale. Defendant has not adduced evidence to prove that there was valid agreement of sale between him and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. The agreement was invalid for want of a certificate of no present interest. The issue whether there was a valid agreement of sale in respect of the property between the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin and the defendant is answered in favour of the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the transfer of the property into plaintiff’s name was done fraudulently and unlawful</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="69"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">I have already found that the agreement between the defendant and the seller was invalid. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Even if I am to assume at this stage, for present purposes only, that the agreement was valid, still </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">it was lawfully cancelled. The following are the reasons for this finding. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="70"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Mr Moyo-Majwabu was the executor dative of the estate of the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. He sought a section 120 of the Administration of Estates Act authority from the Master of the High Court to dispose of the property by private treaty, and such authority was granted. This evidence was not controverted. He entered into an agreement of sale with the plaintiff in respect of the property. Plaintiff purchased the property and it was then transferred to him. Plaintiff holds a deed of transfer No. 1804/2016 in respect of the property. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="71"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Cut to the borne defendant’s contention is that he was the first purchaser and his agreement of sale with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin was not terminated. Therefore, when plaintiff entered into an agreement of sale with the executor, the agreement with defendant was extant. Defendant contends that he paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. He produced a copy of a receipt (Exh. B2). He says the balance was due and payable upon the seller producing a certificate of no present interest. The question is did defendant pay the deposit of US440 000.00? </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="72"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">His argument is that Exh. A2 is inadmissible hearsay evidence. When Exh. A2 was produced and received by this court Mr <i>Ndubiwa </i>counsel for the defendant did not object to its admissibility. The issue of its inadmissibility was only raised in written submissions. It is important that when evidence that counsel considers inadmissible is adduced, counsel immediately stands up and objects and outline the grounds of objection. To sit and allow what counsel might be considering inadmissible evidence and then spring a surprise at closing submissions stage is not the best practice of running a trial. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="73"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Anywhere Mr Moyo-Majwabu testified that he received instructions from the seller, and on the basis of those instructions he drafted Exh. A2 and gave it to her to sign.  This evidence was not challenged in cross examination. Mr Moyo-Majwabu</span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-ZW"> saw, heard or otherwise perceived the statement being made by </span><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">seller. It is on this ground that Exh. A2 is admissible in terms of section 27(3) (a) of the Civil Evidence Act [Chapter 8:01]. It remains a question of weight. It is important to distinguish issues of admissibility from issues of weight. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="74"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant contends that the deposit was paid on the 5<sup>th</sup> October 2011. Exh. A2 was written on the 27 February 2013. It was received on the 28 February 2013. Exh. A2 is clear that no payment was made towards the purchase price. If defendant had paid the US$40 000.00 he surely could have approached the seller and produced his receipt. He received a letter dated 3<sup>rd</sup> December 2013 (Exh. A5) from <i>James, Moyo-Majwabu and Nyoni </i>advising him that he had not paid the purchase price and giving him notice to vacate. He instructs his legal practitioners to reply, but conspicuously does not attach the receipt (Exh. B2) to prove that he paid US$40 000. 00. He visits the executor’s office, he does not tell him that he paid US$40 000.00. He tells the executor that he wanted to pay US$28 000.00, but it was refused. His wife twice visits the executor and does not say she paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. According to the executor she was merely pleading that they be given more time to raise the purchase price. These are not the actions of a person who had paid in cash a huge amount of US$40 000.00. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="75"><li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Defendant in an attempt to cover up his tracks he testified that he did not receive Exh. A2, and that his late wife left the original receipt in the executor’s office. If he had not received the letter (Exh. A2) his legal practitioners would have said so in their letter dated 7 February 2014 (Exh. A6). Again if his wife had left the original receipt in the executor’s office, his lawyers would have said so in the same letter. He does not even explain where he got the copy of the receipt (Exh. B2), who photocopied it and for what purpose. The copy was not certified a true and correct copy of the original. The receipt is just a fake.  A façade. A false creation calculated to mislead. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="76"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It is clear that the denial that he received Exh. A2 and that the original of the receipt (Exh. B2) was left in the executor’s office are just after-thoughts by the defendant. Exh. A2 shows that defendant did not pay any amount towards the purchase price. He breached a material term of the agreement and the agreement was terminated. He was given notice to vacate.  He did not file a claim against the estate of the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="77"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The executor was at large to sell the property to the plaintiff. The executor obtained a section 120 authority. Prepared a final distribution account. Defendant did not file an objection to the account. The Master confirmed the account. Without an objection there was no impediment to the sale of the property. There is no basis to allege that the transfer of the property to the plaintiff was done fraudulently and unlawfully. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">I have made <i>supra</i> that there was no valid agreement of sale between the defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. On this basis alone the transfer of the property to the plaintiff is beyond impeachment.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="79"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In his written submissions defendant contends that there was a double sale in this matter, and that the provisions of the Contractual Penalties Act [Chapter 8:04} are applicable. These issues do not arise. First, there was no double sale in this case. Second, there was no installment sale between defendant and the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="80"><li class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">The <i>onus</i> is on the defendant to show that the transfer of the property to the plaintiff was fraudulent and unlawful. Defendant has failed to discharge such <i>onus</i> of proof. This issue is answered in favor of the plaintiff. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">Whether the plaintiff is entitled to the relief he seeks </span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="81"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff seeks the eviction of the defendant from the property in terms of the <i>rei vindicatio.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="82"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The <i>rei vindicatio </i>is premised on the notion that an owner may not be deprived of his or her property against his or her will, and is entitled to recover property from any person who retains possession of it without his or her consent. Therefore, no other person may withhold property from the owner unless he or she is vested with some right enforceable against the owner such as a right of retention against the owner or a contractual right. It is trite law that possession should also be lawful in order to be a valid defence against the <i>rei vindicatio</i>. Our law calls for ruthless vindication and protection of the right of ownership. See: <i>Nzara &amp; Ors. v Kashumba N.O. &amp; Ors.</i> SC 18/18; <i>Alspite Investments (Pvt) Ltd v Westerhoff </i>2009 (2) ZLR 236.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <ol start="83"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Authorities show that an owner who institutes the <i>rei vindicatio </i>is required to allege and prove that- </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">he or she is the owner of the thing;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the thing was in the possession of the defendant at the commencement of the action; and </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the thing which is vindicated is still in existence and clearly identifiable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The onus to establish any right to retain possession of the thing always rests on the defendant as long as the owner does not go beyond alleging his or her ownership and the fact that the thing is in the possession of the defendant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="84"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>casu </i>the property is registered in the name of the plaintiff. He has real right to the property. Exh. A1 is a copy of the deed of transfer. Defendant is in possession of the property. Defendant has not established any right of retention. He had no valid agreement with the late Gladys Marjorie Parkin. Even if the agreement was valid, it was lawfully cancelled. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="85"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the circumstances plaintiff’s claim against the defendant must succeed. Defendant’s counter claim must fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="86"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The general rule in matters of costs is that the successful party should be given its costs, and this rule should not be departed from except where there are good grounds for doing so. I can think of no reason why I should deviate from this general rule. I therefore intend awarding costs against the defendant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="87"><li style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the summons costs are sought against on the scale as between legal practitioner and client.   It is trite law that costs are in the discretion of the court to be exercised judicially upon a consideration of the relevant facts and must be fair to the parties</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">. Defendant took advantage of the fact that of the four persons who had something to do with this matter, three have since died, the seller, her husband and defendant’s wife. He is the only one who is alive. He then peddled falsehood that he and his wife paid a deposit of US$40 000.00. Produced a fake receipt. Lied that his late wife left the original receipt in the office of the executor. He crafted a strategy to take advantage of the seller because she is late. This is reprehensible conduct. This is unworthy conduct. This is conduct that deserves of censure. Costs on a legal practitioner and client scale are warranted in this matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacingCxSpLast" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US">In the result, it is ordered that: </span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s claim succeeds with costs on a legal practitioner and client scale.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant’s claim in reconvention is dismissed with costs on a legal practitioner and client scale. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol><li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Defendant and all those claiming occupation through him vacate Lot 1 of subdivision B of Deneys measuring 53, 9010 hectares within 14 days of this order, failing which the Sheriff or his lawful deputy be and is hereby authorised to eject defendant from the property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">James, Moyo-Majwabu &amp; Nyoni </span></span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">plaintiff’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="line-height:115%" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="color:black">Mashayamombe &amp; Co. Attorneys </span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="line-height:115%" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="color:black">defendant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:48px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Tue, 10 May 2022 08:09:19 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12438 at http://zimlii.org Fernoughty v Chataika and 2 Others (4 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 4 (12 January 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/4 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Fernoughty v Chataika and 2 Others (4 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 4 (12 January 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1474" hreflang="en">Prescription</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1592" hreflang="en">Pleadings</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 05/06/2022 - 06:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/4/2022-zwhhc-4.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=19675">2022-zwhhc-4.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/4/2022-zwhhc-4.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=403325">2022-zwhhc-4.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;">HH 04-22</p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">       HC 887/21                                      </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DONALD CHARLES FERNOUGHTY</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">NATHAN CHATAIKA</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAX MANAGEMENT (PRIVATE) LIMITED</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MILTON GARDENS ASSOCIATION</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 3 November, 2021 &amp; 12 January 2022</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">OPPOSED APPLICATION-SPECIAL PLEA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">B. Mahuni, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for Plaintiff</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">P. Mwandura,</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for Defendant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The order sought in this matter is that First Defendant’s Special Plea be and is hereby upheld and that the Plaintiff’s claim is dismissed with costs on a legal practitioner and client scale.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the main action, Plaintiff claimed the eviction of First Defendant and all those claiming occupation through him from stand number 905 <a name="_Hlk90924540" id="_Hlk90924540">of Newark of Hilton of Subdivision A, Waterfalls, Harare. </a>He also claimed damages in the sum of USD 2500.00 for future demolition and removal of structures constructed by First Defendant on the property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff’s declaration is that on 1 August 2006, he entered into an agreement of sale with Second Defendant in terms of which Second Defendant sold stand number 905 of Newark of Hilton of Subdivision A, Waterfalls, Harare to him. The property is also known as stand number 905 Forbes Road, Uplands, Waterfalls, Harare. It was an undeveloped stand. Plaintiff stated that he paid the purchase price in full and has been paying service charges for the property to the developer. Second Defendant subsequently went on to execute a deed of cession of the property in Plaintiff’s favour. The cession transferred all the rights, title and interest in the property to plaintiff and he became the beneficial owner of the property. Sometime in September 2010, plaintiff discovered that First Defendant had occupied his property. He approached Third Defendant who had assumed rights and obligations for the entire Subdivision A. Third Defendant wrote to First Defendant demanding that he vacates the property and affirmed plaintiff’s rights in it. First Defendant refused to vacate the property and instituted court proceedings seeking a declarator that he was the lawful owner of stand 905. The court application was dismissed for want of prosecution. Sometime in January 2021 plaintiff discovered that First Defendant had once more taken occupation of his property and had erected structures on it. As at the date of filing summons, the construction and excavation of culverts was in progress. All attempts to stop First Defendant’s unlawful actions have been in vain.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">First Defendant filed a Special Plea on the basis that Plaintiff’s claim has prescribed. He submitted that Plaintiff discovered that he was in occupation of the property in September 2010 and that by Plaintiff’s own admission First Defendant continued in occupation of the property to the date of filing the Special Plea. He further submitted that to the extent that Plaintiff failed to act within the statutory three-year period, he has abandoned his claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In his Replication, Plaintiff stated that there was judicial interruption of prescription when First Defendant instituted proceedings for a declarator under HC 6275/13 which was filed on 2 August 2013 when the prescribed three years were yet to run out on 7 September 2013. He also stated that by instituting proceedings before prescription had run its course, First Defendant waived the right to rely on prescription. He further stated that the cause of action arose in January 2021 when he discovered that First Defendant was now constructing permanent structures on the property. This was the erection of a perimeter wall and the digging of culverts which constituted fresh interference with plaintiff’s rights. In the alternative, Plaintiff claimed that the present action is based on the judgment in HC 6275/13 wherein First Defendant’s claim to the property was dismissed. Since a judgment prescribes after 30 years in terms of section 15 of the Prescription Act [<i>Chapter 8:11</i>] the claim has not prescribed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup> issue to consider in this case is when the cause of action arose. According to First Defendant, the cause of action arose in September 2010 or December 2010. He argued that by that time Plaintiff had identified the debtor and had all the facts necessary to prove his claim. He claims that Plaintiff admitted that First Defendant was in occupation of the property, persisted in such occupation and that he did not have access to the property due to First Defendant’s occupation. Plaintiff alleged that the cause of action arose on 11 January 2021 when he discovered that First Defendant had once more taken occupation of his property and proceeded to erect structures on it. He further alleged that before January 2021 he had inspected the property and there was no one in occupation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            In a special plea, the Defendant must take the plaintiff’s declaration as it is.  See <i>Sabina Altaf Ahmed</i> v <i>Joina Development Company (Private) Limited</i><b> </b>HH 242/20. The Plaintiff’s <i>causa</i> in the declaration is the erection of structures, construction and excavation of culverts which he said was in progress at the time of the filing of the summons. As stated above, Plaintiff alleged that First Defendant “<i>had once more taken occupation of his property” </i>giving an impression that First Defendant had vacated the property at some point<i>. </i>In his Special Plea, First Defendant is reverting to September 2010 and alleging that he persisted in occupation. There is therefore a dispute of allegations which cannot be resolved without resort to evidence. In <i>Brooker</i> v <i>Mudhanda &amp; Anor</i><b> </b>SC 5/18 the Court observed that when regard is had to the nature of the plea of prescription, it must by implication become obvious that a factual dispute must be decided as to when the cause of action arose. I find that it will be inappropriate to determine when the cause of action arose without hearing <i>viva voce </i>evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Even though both parties prayed for costs on a higher scale in their pleadings, no justification was given either orally or in heads of argument. Ordinary costs will meet the justice of the case. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the result the special plea is dismissed with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Scanlen and Holderness, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s Legal Practitioners.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Wintertons, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1<sup>st</sup> Defendant’s Legal Practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-cc02a8f01c9a3cd1d59d43e93e3b0d020b31bc748c18c94052308d60d14b640e"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;">HH 04-22</p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">       HC 887/21                                      </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DONALD CHARLES FERNOUGHTY</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">NATHAN CHATAIKA</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAX MANAGEMENT (PRIVATE) LIMITED</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MILTON GARDENS ASSOCIATION</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 3 November, 2021 &amp; 12 January 2022</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">OPPOSED APPLICATION-SPECIAL PLEA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">B. Mahuni, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for Plaintiff</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">P. Mwandura,</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for Defendant</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAXWELL J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The order sought in this matter is that First Defendant’s Special Plea be and is hereby upheld and that the Plaintiff’s claim is dismissed with costs on a legal practitioner and client scale.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the main action, Plaintiff claimed the eviction of First Defendant and all those claiming occupation through him from stand number 905 <a name="_Hlk90924540" id="_Hlk90924540">of Newark of Hilton of Subdivision A, Waterfalls, Harare. </a>He also claimed damages in the sum of USD 2500.00 for future demolition and removal of structures constructed by First Defendant on the property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff’s declaration is that on 1 August 2006, he entered into an agreement of sale with Second Defendant in terms of which Second Defendant sold stand number 905 of Newark of Hilton of Subdivision A, Waterfalls, Harare to him. The property is also known as stand number 905 Forbes Road, Uplands, Waterfalls, Harare. It was an undeveloped stand. Plaintiff stated that he paid the purchase price in full and has been paying service charges for the property to the developer. Second Defendant subsequently went on to execute a deed of cession of the property in Plaintiff’s favour. The cession transferred all the rights, title and interest in the property to plaintiff and he became the beneficial owner of the property. Sometime in September 2010, plaintiff discovered that First Defendant had occupied his property. He approached Third Defendant who had assumed rights and obligations for the entire Subdivision A. Third Defendant wrote to First Defendant demanding that he vacates the property and affirmed plaintiff’s rights in it. First Defendant refused to vacate the property and instituted court proceedings seeking a declarator that he was the lawful owner of stand 905. The court application was dismissed for want of prosecution. Sometime in January 2021 plaintiff discovered that First Defendant had once more taken occupation of his property and had erected structures on it. As at the date of filing summons, the construction and excavation of culverts was in progress. All attempts to stop First Defendant’s unlawful actions have been in vain.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">First Defendant filed a Special Plea on the basis that Plaintiff’s claim has prescribed. He submitted that Plaintiff discovered that he was in occupation of the property in September 2010 and that by Plaintiff’s own admission First Defendant continued in occupation of the property to the date of filing the Special Plea. He further submitted that to the extent that Plaintiff failed to act within the statutory three-year period, he has abandoned his claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In his Replication, Plaintiff stated that there was judicial interruption of prescription when First Defendant instituted proceedings for a declarator under HC 6275/13 which was filed on 2 August 2013 when the prescribed three years were yet to run out on 7 September 2013. He also stated that by instituting proceedings before prescription had run its course, First Defendant waived the right to rely on prescription. He further stated that the cause of action arose in January 2021 when he discovered that First Defendant was now constructing permanent structures on the property. This was the erection of a perimeter wall and the digging of culverts which constituted fresh interference with plaintiff’s rights. In the alternative, Plaintiff claimed that the present action is based on the judgment in HC 6275/13 wherein First Defendant’s claim to the property was dismissed. Since a judgment prescribes after 30 years in terms of section 15 of the Prescription Act [<i>Chapter 8:11</i>] the claim has not prescribed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup> issue to consider in this case is when the cause of action arose. According to First Defendant, the cause of action arose in September 2010 or December 2010. He argued that by that time Plaintiff had identified the debtor and had all the facts necessary to prove his claim. He claims that Plaintiff admitted that First Defendant was in occupation of the property, persisted in such occupation and that he did not have access to the property due to First Defendant’s occupation. Plaintiff alleged that the cause of action arose on 11 January 2021 when he discovered that First Defendant had once more taken occupation of his property and proceeded to erect structures on it. He further alleged that before January 2021 he had inspected the property and there was no one in occupation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            In a special plea, the Defendant must take the plaintiff’s declaration as it is.  See <i>Sabina Altaf Ahmed</i> v <i>Joina Development Company (Private) Limited</i><b> </b>HH 242/20. The Plaintiff’s <i>causa</i> in the declaration is the erection of structures, construction and excavation of culverts which he said was in progress at the time of the filing of the summons. As stated above, Plaintiff alleged that First Defendant “<i>had once more taken occupation of his property” </i>giving an impression that First Defendant had vacated the property at some point<i>. </i>In his Special Plea, First Defendant is reverting to September 2010 and alleging that he persisted in occupation. There is therefore a dispute of allegations which cannot be resolved without resort to evidence. In <i>Brooker</i> v <i>Mudhanda &amp; Anor</i><b> </b>SC 5/18 the Court observed that when regard is had to the nature of the plea of prescription, it must by implication become obvious that a factual dispute must be decided as to when the cause of action arose. I find that it will be inappropriate to determine when the cause of action arose without hearing <i>viva voce </i>evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Even though both parties prayed for costs on a higher scale in their pleadings, no justification was given either orally or in heads of argument. Ordinary costs will meet the justice of the case. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the result the special plea is dismissed with costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Scanlen and Holderness, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Plaintiff’s Legal Practitioners.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Wintertons, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1<sup>st</sup> Defendant’s Legal Practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Fri, 06 May 2022 06:20:55 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12429 at http://zimlii.org Rotazom Investments (Pvt) Ltd v Byco (Pvt) Ltd and Another (249 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 249 (20 April 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/249 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Rotazom Investments (Pvt) Ltd v Byco (Pvt) Ltd and Another (249 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 249 (20 April 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2172" hreflang="x-default">Absolution from the instance – principles</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2033" hreflang="en">Leases and tenants</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 05/05/2022 - 08:37</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/249/2022-zwhhc-249.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=32748">2022-zwhhc-249.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/249/2022-zwhhc-249.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=539211">2022-zwhhc-249.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right">HH 249-22</p> <p class="text-align-right">HC 1888/18</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ROTAZOM INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BYCO (PVT) LTD </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">LOGRY TRADING (PVT) LTD</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUZOFA J </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE,27 October 2021 &amp; 20 April 2022 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">G OChieng, </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the plaintiff </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">E Mubayiwa </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">with</span></span></span><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> T Nyahuma, </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Absolution from the instance  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUZOFA J:  </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This is an application for absolution from the instance at the close of the plaintiff’s case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff’s claim as amended is for eviction of the second defendant and all those claiming occupation through it from premises known as 33 Watts Road, Ardbennie Harare ‘the property<a name="_Hlk100589600" id="_Hlk100589600">’, US$255 860.00 </a>being rentals and utilities from March 2015 to May 2017, holding over damages of US$9 200.00 per month from 31 June 2017 to the date of final eviction and interest at the prescribed rate on both amounts claimed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first defendant filed its plea in April 2008. In August 2019, it filed an amended plea through an order of this court. The problem with the amended plea is that it does not indicate what exactly is being amended. It is expected that an amendment clearly sets out the nature of the amendments. In this case in the absence of any indication of specific amendments I will assume the first defendant completely abandoned its plea filed in April 2008.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The plea as amended raised a number of defences to the claim for eviction, that the lease was not cancelled it remains valid, that the first defendant has a lien over the property and that its equipment is attached to the property such that it cannot be removed without causing damage to the equipment. It denied owing any arrear rentals. For holding over damages, the first defendant denied that such damages are due since the lease was not terminated. In respect of utilities, the first defendant pleaded that there is a dispute on the pro rata computation and the issue must be referred to arbitration in terms of the lease agreement.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first defendant also filed a claim in reconvention for payment of US$453 217.33 being damages incurred due to an unlawful electricity connection by the plaintiff and interest at the prescribed rate.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In respect of the claim in reconvention the plaintiff denied the claim in its totality and averred that the claim must be made against the second defendant which unlawfully connected the electricity. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Although the second defendant filed its plea denying ever connecting electricity as alleged, it did not thereafter file further pleadings. On the date of trial there was no appearance on its behalf.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The joint pre-trial conference minute held between the plaintiff and the first defendant captured the issues for trial as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant is indebted to the plaintiff in respect of arrear rentals and utilities for the period March 2019 to September 2020 in the sum of US$154 797.24</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant is liable for holding over damages of US$9 200. 00 per month from October 2020 to the date of final eviction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the plaintiff is entitled to an order for the eviction of the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant and any person claiming title or interest through it?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant’s claim in reconvention has prescribed?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the plaintiff colluded with the 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant to unlawfully abstract or divert electricity current from the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant’s electricity metre to its own premises</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the corporate veil between plaintiff and 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant should be lifted</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the plaintiff is jointly liable with the 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant for payment of the sum of USD 453 217.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Two witnesses gave evidence to buttress the plaintiff’s case. Shah Prashant ‘Shah’ was the first to give evidence. His evidence was straight forward. He said the plaintiff entered into a three-year lease agreement with the first defendant from 2014 to 2017 at a monthly rental of US$8000 and a pro rata payment of utilities which was about 50% of the City of Harare charges and electricity. The first defendant failed to pay the rentals in terms of the agreement. In February 2017 the plaintiff served the first defendant with a notice to terminate the lease at the end of May 2017.The termination was due to effluxion of time; it was not based on breach of contract. Despite such termination of contract and demand to vacate from the property, the first defendant did not give the plaintiff vacant possession. He denied that the first defendant’s equipment is permanently fixed to the property. According to him it can be removed. He also denied that the plaintiff unlawfully connected electricity as alleged by the first respondent. As such the plaintiff is not indebted to the first defendant arising from the purported unlawful connections.  In short, the first defendant has no lien over the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The second witness was Abigail Kawodza ‘Abigail’, an accountant at the plaintiff. The purpose of her evidence was to establish the amounts due to the plaintiff in respect of the arrear rentals and holding over damages. I will revert to her evidence later in the judgment. The plaintiff then closed its case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first defendant applied for absolution from the instance at the close of the plaintiff’s case. Both parties in this case properly articulated the applicable law in such an application. The test at this stage is one that has stood the test of time as stated in <i>Gascoyne</i> v <i>Paul and Hunter</i> 1972 TPD170 at p 173, as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“At the close of the plaintiff’s case, therefore, the question which arises for the consideration          of the court is, is there evidence upon which a reasonable man might find for the plaintiff?            And if the defendant does not call any evidence, but closes his case immediately, the question       for the court would be, ‘Is there such evidence upon which the court…. ought to give          judgment in favour of the plaintiff’.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i>            </i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff must establish a <i>prima facie</i> case in the sense that there is evidence relating to all the elements of the claim to survive absolution, otherwise no court might find for the plaintiff. The evidence must establish a cause of action pleaded and all the elements of such cause of action. See <i>United Air Charters (Pvt) Ltd </i>v<i> Jarman </i>1994 (2) ZLR 341 at 343 B, <i>De Klerk </i>v<i> ABSA</i> 2003 (4) SA 315 (SCA) at 323. Courts usually lean in favour of the case continuing so that it decides the matter on all the evidence. However, where the plaintiff has failed to establish a <i>prima facie </i>case, absolution must be granted, no case should be allowed to continue to bolster the plaintiff’s case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> I address the claims separately </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Eviction</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In seeking absolution from the instance in respect of eviction, the first defendant submitted that the claim is based on a letter which is a notice to terminate. The plaintiff did not subsequently terminate the lease which is the juridical act required for cancellation. For all intents and purposes, the lease agreement remains valid. For this assertion the first defendant relied on the authority of <i>Shamuyarira </i>v<i> Makonese</i> HH401/18.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response the plaintiff argued that the termination did not require a juridical act of cancellation. The lease agreement provided for termination of the lease of agreement by effluxion of time. The lease could only continue in the event the plaintiff did not take action to terminate. In this case the plaintiff took action to prevent the lease from continuing. The agreement was not terminated as a result of breach, but it terminated by effluxion of time and the plaintiff did all that was required to bring the lease to an end.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In my view both parties took a narrow view to the claim for eviction and focused on the notice of termination only, yet it is apparent that the claim for eviction is resisted on two further grounds. Firstly, that the first defendant has an enrichment lien over the property and therefore cannot be evicted until the plaintiff has paid the amount due. A lien is a valid defence to a claim of eviction. Secondly that the first defendant’s equipment is affixed to the property such that it cannot be removed without causing damage to the equipment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The question whether the letter dated 27 February 2017 was a notice to terminate the lease agreement is a matter of interpretation. There is no dispute that the first defendant was served with the letter and that it was aware of its contents. The court’s task is to determine whether that was a valid cancellation considering the whole lease agreement. At this stage the court is satisfied that the plaintiff has shown that it served the first defendant with the letter. What that letter turns out to be is a question of interpretation and that can only be decided at the end of the trial. The <i>Shamuyarira</i> case (<i>supra)</i> relied upon by the plaintiff is distinguishable from the circumstances of the case. In this case there was no invitation for further engagements in respect of the lease agreement.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue on whether the equipment is fixed to the property and the question of the lien cast the onus of proof on the first defendant.</span></span></span><b> </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">An application for absolution from the instance would be a premature instance to debate the points before the first defendant has placed evidence before the court. These issues must be considered at the end of the evidence.</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In my view the circumstances of the case require that the matter proceeds. The</span></span></span><b> </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">application for absolution from the instance is without merit since the defendant must discharge its onus.<b>  </b></span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Arrear Rentals </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In seeking absolution in respect of arrear rentals, the first defendant submitted that the claim is in an illegal currency, and it cannot stand. On the illegality of the claim in United States dollars the court was referred to the case of <i>Zizhou </i>v<i> The Taxing Officer &amp; Anor</i> SC 7 /20 where a bill of tax was made in United States dollars. The court held that the bill was denominated in United States dollars in contravention of the law. In addition, it was submitted that the claim was not even established. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, the plaintiff averred that the currency of claim is lawful in that this is a claim for damages and not a claim arising from a ‘transaction’ as contemplated by Statutory Instrument 142 of 2019. The court is at large to award damages in foreign currency in order to give meaningful compensation for the plaintiff’s loss. The court was referred to the case of <i>Chiriseri </i>v<i> Commissioner General of Police &amp; Others</i> HH450/20 for the submission. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Although the plaintiff’s claim was initially for</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">US$255 860.00 it is not in dispute that the first defendant made some payments towards rent arrears for the period March 2015 to February 2019 after an order by consent under HC1888/18 was issued. It is on that basis that, the parties agreed to refer to trial the question in respect of US$ 154 797.24 in rent arrears. In his submissions Mr<i> Mubaiwa</i> indicated that the plaintiff insisted on the initial amount claimed. The submission was factually incorrect since the amount had reduced substantially.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The plaintiff produced a schedule showing the purported arrear rentals from March 2019 to September 2020. Obviously the schedule did not prove arrear rentals.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Arrear rentals simply refer to those outstanding amounts for rentals that accrued during the currency of the lease but were not paid.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> To prove the arrear rentals the plaintiff was enjoined to show that, before the alleged termination of the lease agreement, the first defendant failed to comply with its obligations. Since the plaintiff alleged that it cancelled the lease agreement in May 2017 one would expect proof of non-payment for periods falling prior to the date of termination. If the court were to accept the evidence as prove of arrear rentals, it casts a doubt on the plaintiff’s averment that it cancelled the contract in May 2017.It leaves the question as to when the contract was cancelled and from what date the holding over damages begin to run unclear.  The evidence placed before the court from March 2019 does not fall within the tenets of arrear rentals. The plaintiff confused rent arrears and holding over damages. The two are different. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Abigail also referred to a schedule for the period March 2015 to February 2019 with a total of ZW$488 790.03. She did not explain what the schedule was supposed to prove. The amounts are in the local currency, yet the claim is in United States dollars. There was no explanation how that evidence relates to the US$ 154 797.24 referred to trial. The time frame includes both the pre termination and the post termination period. The document is a mixed bag of what could be the rent arrears and holding over damages. In the absence of clarity as to the relevance of the schedule, the schedule remains meaningless and cannot pass for evidence to prove the plaintiff’s claim. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It would appear the plaintiff conceded that no arrear rentals are still owing. I quote verbatim the plaintiff’s submissions on paragraph 8,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">‘The arrears were claimed together with damages for holding over after the lease had terminated and the first defendant wrongfully retained the premises. When changes in currency made it advantageous for it to do so, the first defendant <i>settled the arrears</i> and the portion of holding over damages that had accrued and become a liquid debt as at February 2019. The dispute therefore relates to ending its wrongful occupation of the premises and <i>recovering damages for the holding</i> since March 2019.’  (italics for my emphasis)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">From the submissions it is apparent that the plaintiff no longer pursues its claim for arrear rentals. The arrear rentals were paid including part of the holding over damages. The claim must have been withdrawn instead of persisting with it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The updated rental statement for the first defendant relied upon by the plaintiff shows that payments were made. In essence there is no evidence before the court upon which a finding might be made for the plaintiff in respect of the rent arrears in the sum of US$154 797,24. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the absence of evidence, there is no need to even consider the validity of the currency issue.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Absolution must be granted in respect of the claim for arrear rentals.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Holding over damages</span></span></span></b><b> </b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In seeking absolution, the first defendant raised the currency issue, that holding over damages are not due since the lease agreement is still valid and that the quantum of the holding over damages was not established. There was no valuation evidence of the market value of the property from a real estate in terms of s2 of the Estates Agent Act. The plaintiff relied on a value of occupation as agreed by the parties in the lease agreement. This was an agreed value borne out of negotiation and not the market value. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, the plaintiff submitted that the value of occupation was proved. Evidence was led to establish that the plaintiff has two identical buildings at the same location. One is occupied by a lawful tenant and the other is illegally occupied by the first defendant. The claim for holding over damages mirrors the rental the plaintiff is receiving from the lawful tenant. The evidence was not challenged.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> A claim for holding over damages is based on a breach of the contractual obligation to give vacant possession of the property on termination as required by the relevant clause in the lease agreement. Kerr in the <i>Law of Sale and Lease (</i>3rd ed. 2004<i>)</i> at p 421; states that under contract, the breach is the failure to restore possession on termination and the remedy of ordinary damages for holding over (i.e. market related rental) arises by reason of the landlord being deprived of the use and enjoyment of the property because the erstwhile tenant has remained in occupation. See also Lillicrap<i>, Wassernaar &amp; Partners v Pilkington Bros (SA) (Pty) Ltd </i>1985 (1) SA 347 (A) at 496 I – 597 C.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The claim for damages resulting from holding over is thus founded in breach of contract.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In this case the plaintiff alleged that it cancelled the lease agreement in May 2017 and the first defendant has failed to give vacant possession despite demand. Whether the lease agreement was terminated is yet to be decided. Despite that, at this stage the plaintiff is required to show how the claim for US$9 200 .00 holding over damages is quantified. The value must be a market value.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> That the first defendant is liable to pay rentals is beyond question. No tenant may occupy premises except in return for the payment of rent. In this case the rentals are in the form of holding over damages. Damages are a function of evidence, there must be evidence to prove the amount claimed. It is trite that a court nor anyone else cannot pluck a figure from the air.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The two witnesses who gave evidence for the plaintiff did not explain how the figure of US$9 200 was arrived at. The plaintiff’s submissions state that evidence was placed before the court that the computation was based on the rentals paid by a tenant occupying an almost similar space on the property is incorrect. A flirting reference was made to the other tenant in relation to the arrear rentals. No evidence was placed before the court showing how much the tenant is paying to prove the holding over damages. It is trite that evidence cannot be placed before the court by way of submissions. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff produced the first defendant’s updated rental statement for the period March 2015 to September 2021.The period includes October 2020 the date from which the holding over damages are said to commence .The rentals are quoted as $7000.00 .In addition to that amount are the City  of Harare charges of ZW$ 2 794.66 and VAT of 1015.00 bringing the total due to US$ 8333.00.Even if the court were to accept that computation, it does not establish the claim for US$9 200.00 claimed by the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Even if the quantum is based on the expired lease or the rentals paid by the said legitimate tenant the amount is a result of agreement. It does not necessarily represent the market value of the property. In my view there was no evidence of the real market value of the property to confirm the figure of US$9 200.00 as holding over damages.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">From the foregoing, the plaintiff has failed to place before the court evidence upon which a finding might be made in its favour in respect of the rent arrears and holding over damages. The plaintiff has managed to establish a <i>prima case</i> in respect of the claim for eviction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Accordingly, the following order is made.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Application for absolution from the instance is dismissed in respect of the claim for eviction.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application for absolution from the instance is granted in respect of the claim for arrear rentals and holding over damages with costs.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The parties are directed to liaise with the Registrar Chinhoyi High Court for the continuation of the case.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Atherstone &amp; Cook, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">plaintiff’s legal practitioners<i>.</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">S Nyahuma’s Law</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, first defendant, legal practitioners<i>.</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-3cd12940810a2312484b311388effb03abf4f5706c6ab77708b807028a9db72b"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right">HH 249-22</p> <p class="text-align-right">HC 1888/18</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ROTAZOM INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BYCO (PVT) LTD </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">LOGRY TRADING (PVT) LTD</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUZOFA J </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE,27 October 2021 &amp; 20 April 2022 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">G OChieng, </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the plaintiff </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">E Mubayiwa </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">with</span></span></span><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> T Nyahuma, </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">for the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:106%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Absolution from the instance  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MUZOFA J:  </span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This is an application for absolution from the instance at the close of the plaintiff’s case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff’s claim as amended is for eviction of the second defendant and all those claiming occupation through it from premises known as 33 Watts Road, Ardbennie Harare ‘the property<a name="_Hlk100589600" id="_Hlk100589600">’, US$255 860.00 </a>being rentals and utilities from March 2015 to May 2017, holding over damages of US$9 200.00 per month from 31 June 2017 to the date of final eviction and interest at the prescribed rate on both amounts claimed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first defendant filed its plea in April 2008. In August 2019, it filed an amended plea through an order of this court. The problem with the amended plea is that it does not indicate what exactly is being amended. It is expected that an amendment clearly sets out the nature of the amendments. In this case in the absence of any indication of specific amendments I will assume the first defendant completely abandoned its plea filed in April 2008.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The plea as amended raised a number of defences to the claim for eviction, that the lease was not cancelled it remains valid, that the first defendant has a lien over the property and that its equipment is attached to the property such that it cannot be removed without causing damage to the equipment. It denied owing any arrear rentals. For holding over damages, the first defendant denied that such damages are due since the lease was not terminated. In respect of utilities, the first defendant pleaded that there is a dispute on the pro rata computation and the issue must be referred to arbitration in terms of the lease agreement.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first defendant also filed a claim in reconvention for payment of US$453 217.33 being damages incurred due to an unlawful electricity connection by the plaintiff and interest at the prescribed rate.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In respect of the claim in reconvention the plaintiff denied the claim in its totality and averred that the claim must be made against the second defendant which unlawfully connected the electricity. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Although the second defendant filed its plea denying ever connecting electricity as alleged, it did not thereafter file further pleadings. On the date of trial there was no appearance on its behalf.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The joint pre-trial conference minute held between the plaintiff and the first defendant captured the issues for trial as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant is indebted to the plaintiff in respect of arrear rentals and utilities for the period March 2019 to September 2020 in the sum of US$154 797.24</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant is liable for holding over damages of US$9 200. 00 per month from October 2020 to the date of final eviction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the plaintiff is entitled to an order for the eviction of the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant and any person claiming title or interest through it?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant’s claim in reconvention has prescribed?</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the plaintiff colluded with the 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant to unlawfully abstract or divert electricity current from the 1<sup>st</sup> defendant’s electricity metre to its own premises</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the corporate veil between plaintiff and 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant should be lifted</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whether the plaintiff is jointly liable with the 2<sup>nd</sup> defendant for payment of the sum of USD 453 217.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Two witnesses gave evidence to buttress the plaintiff’s case. Shah Prashant ‘Shah’ was the first to give evidence. His evidence was straight forward. He said the plaintiff entered into a three-year lease agreement with the first defendant from 2014 to 2017 at a monthly rental of US$8000 and a pro rata payment of utilities which was about 50% of the City of Harare charges and electricity. The first defendant failed to pay the rentals in terms of the agreement. In February 2017 the plaintiff served the first defendant with a notice to terminate the lease at the end of May 2017.The termination was due to effluxion of time; it was not based on breach of contract. Despite such termination of contract and demand to vacate from the property, the first defendant did not give the plaintiff vacant possession. He denied that the first defendant’s equipment is permanently fixed to the property. According to him it can be removed. He also denied that the plaintiff unlawfully connected electricity as alleged by the first respondent. As such the plaintiff is not indebted to the first defendant arising from the purported unlawful connections.  In short, the first defendant has no lien over the property. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The second witness was Abigail Kawodza ‘Abigail’, an accountant at the plaintiff. The purpose of her evidence was to establish the amounts due to the plaintiff in respect of the arrear rentals and holding over damages. I will revert to her evidence later in the judgment. The plaintiff then closed its case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first defendant applied for absolution from the instance at the close of the plaintiff’s case. Both parties in this case properly articulated the applicable law in such an application. The test at this stage is one that has stood the test of time as stated in <i>Gascoyne</i> v <i>Paul and Hunter</i> 1972 TPD170 at p 173, as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“At the close of the plaintiff’s case, therefore, the question which arises for the consideration          of the court is, is there evidence upon which a reasonable man might find for the plaintiff?            And if the defendant does not call any evidence, but closes his case immediately, the question       for the court would be, ‘Is there such evidence upon which the court…. ought to give          judgment in favour of the plaintiff’.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i>            </i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff must establish a <i>prima facie</i> case in the sense that there is evidence relating to all the elements of the claim to survive absolution, otherwise no court might find for the plaintiff. The evidence must establish a cause of action pleaded and all the elements of such cause of action. See <i>United Air Charters (Pvt) Ltd </i>v<i> Jarman </i>1994 (2) ZLR 341 at 343 B, <i>De Klerk </i>v<i> ABSA</i> 2003 (4) SA 315 (SCA) at 323. Courts usually lean in favour of the case continuing so that it decides the matter on all the evidence. However, where the plaintiff has failed to establish a <i>prima facie </i>case, absolution must be granted, no case should be allowed to continue to bolster the plaintiff’s case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> I address the claims separately </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Eviction</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In seeking absolution from the instance in respect of eviction, the first defendant submitted that the claim is based on a letter which is a notice to terminate. The plaintiff did not subsequently terminate the lease which is the juridical act required for cancellation. For all intents and purposes, the lease agreement remains valid. For this assertion the first defendant relied on the authority of <i>Shamuyarira </i>v<i> Makonese</i> HH401/18.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response the plaintiff argued that the termination did not require a juridical act of cancellation. The lease agreement provided for termination of the lease of agreement by effluxion of time. The lease could only continue in the event the plaintiff did not take action to terminate. In this case the plaintiff took action to prevent the lease from continuing. The agreement was not terminated as a result of breach, but it terminated by effluxion of time and the plaintiff did all that was required to bring the lease to an end.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In my view both parties took a narrow view to the claim for eviction and focused on the notice of termination only, yet it is apparent that the claim for eviction is resisted on two further grounds. Firstly, that the first defendant has an enrichment lien over the property and therefore cannot be evicted until the plaintiff has paid the amount due. A lien is a valid defence to a claim of eviction. Secondly that the first defendant’s equipment is affixed to the property such that it cannot be removed without causing damage to the equipment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The question whether the letter dated 27 February 2017 was a notice to terminate the lease agreement is a matter of interpretation. There is no dispute that the first defendant was served with the letter and that it was aware of its contents. The court’s task is to determine whether that was a valid cancellation considering the whole lease agreement. At this stage the court is satisfied that the plaintiff has shown that it served the first defendant with the letter. What that letter turns out to be is a question of interpretation and that can only be decided at the end of the trial. The <i>Shamuyarira</i> case (<i>supra)</i> relied upon by the plaintiff is distinguishable from the circumstances of the case. In this case there was no invitation for further engagements in respect of the lease agreement.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue on whether the equipment is fixed to the property and the question of the lien cast the onus of proof on the first defendant.</span></span></span><b> </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">An application for absolution from the instance would be a premature instance to debate the points before the first defendant has placed evidence before the court. These issues must be considered at the end of the evidence.</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In my view the circumstances of the case require that the matter proceeds. The</span></span></span><b> </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">application for absolution from the instance is without merit since the defendant must discharge its onus.<b>  </b></span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Arrear Rentals </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In seeking absolution in respect of arrear rentals, the first defendant submitted that the claim is in an illegal currency, and it cannot stand. On the illegality of the claim in United States dollars the court was referred to the case of <i>Zizhou </i>v<i> The Taxing Officer &amp; Anor</i> SC 7 /20 where a bill of tax was made in United States dollars. The court held that the bill was denominated in United States dollars in contravention of the law. In addition, it was submitted that the claim was not even established. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, the plaintiff averred that the currency of claim is lawful in that this is a claim for damages and not a claim arising from a ‘transaction’ as contemplated by Statutory Instrument 142 of 2019. The court is at large to award damages in foreign currency in order to give meaningful compensation for the plaintiff’s loss. The court was referred to the case of <i>Chiriseri </i>v<i> Commissioner General of Police &amp; Others</i> HH450/20 for the submission. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Although the plaintiff’s claim was initially for</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">US$255 860.00 it is not in dispute that the first defendant made some payments towards rent arrears for the period March 2015 to February 2019 after an order by consent under HC1888/18 was issued. It is on that basis that, the parties agreed to refer to trial the question in respect of US$ 154 797.24 in rent arrears. In his submissions Mr<i> Mubaiwa</i> indicated that the plaintiff insisted on the initial amount claimed. The submission was factually incorrect since the amount had reduced substantially.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The plaintiff produced a schedule showing the purported arrear rentals from March 2019 to September 2020. Obviously the schedule did not prove arrear rentals.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Arrear rentals simply refer to those outstanding amounts for rentals that accrued during the currency of the lease but were not paid.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> To prove the arrear rentals the plaintiff was enjoined to show that, before the alleged termination of the lease agreement, the first defendant failed to comply with its obligations. Since the plaintiff alleged that it cancelled the lease agreement in May 2017 one would expect proof of non-payment for periods falling prior to the date of termination. If the court were to accept the evidence as prove of arrear rentals, it casts a doubt on the plaintiff’s averment that it cancelled the contract in May 2017.It leaves the question as to when the contract was cancelled and from what date the holding over damages begin to run unclear.  The evidence placed before the court from March 2019 does not fall within the tenets of arrear rentals. The plaintiff confused rent arrears and holding over damages. The two are different. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Abigail also referred to a schedule for the period March 2015 to February 2019 with a total of ZW$488 790.03. She did not explain what the schedule was supposed to prove. The amounts are in the local currency, yet the claim is in United States dollars. There was no explanation how that evidence relates to the US$ 154 797.24 referred to trial. The time frame includes both the pre termination and the post termination period. The document is a mixed bag of what could be the rent arrears and holding over damages. In the absence of clarity as to the relevance of the schedule, the schedule remains meaningless and cannot pass for evidence to prove the plaintiff’s claim. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">It would appear the plaintiff conceded that no arrear rentals are still owing. I quote verbatim the plaintiff’s submissions on paragraph 8,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">‘The arrears were claimed together with damages for holding over after the lease had terminated and the first defendant wrongfully retained the premises. When changes in currency made it advantageous for it to do so, the first defendant <i>settled the arrears</i> and the portion of holding over damages that had accrued and become a liquid debt as at February 2019. The dispute therefore relates to ending its wrongful occupation of the premises and <i>recovering damages for the holding</i> since March 2019.’  (italics for my emphasis)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">From the submissions it is apparent that the plaintiff no longer pursues its claim for arrear rentals. The arrear rentals were paid including part of the holding over damages. The claim must have been withdrawn instead of persisting with it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The updated rental statement for the first defendant relied upon by the plaintiff shows that payments were made. In essence there is no evidence before the court upon which a finding might be made for the plaintiff in respect of the rent arrears in the sum of US$154 797,24. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the absence of evidence, there is no need to even consider the validity of the currency issue.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Absolution must be granted in respect of the claim for arrear rentals.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Holding over damages</span></span></span></b><b> </b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In seeking absolution, the first defendant raised the currency issue, that holding over damages are not due since the lease agreement is still valid and that the quantum of the holding over damages was not established. There was no valuation evidence of the market value of the property from a real estate in terms of s2 of the Estates Agent Act. The plaintiff relied on a value of occupation as agreed by the parties in the lease agreement. This was an agreed value borne out of negotiation and not the market value. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response, the plaintiff submitted that the value of occupation was proved. Evidence was led to establish that the plaintiff has two identical buildings at the same location. One is occupied by a lawful tenant and the other is illegally occupied by the first defendant. The claim for holding over damages mirrors the rental the plaintiff is receiving from the lawful tenant. The evidence was not challenged.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> A claim for holding over damages is based on a breach of the contractual obligation to give vacant possession of the property on termination as required by the relevant clause in the lease agreement. Kerr in the <i>Law of Sale and Lease (</i>3rd ed. 2004<i>)</i> at p 421; states that under contract, the breach is the failure to restore possession on termination and the remedy of ordinary damages for holding over (i.e. market related rental) arises by reason of the landlord being deprived of the use and enjoyment of the property because the erstwhile tenant has remained in occupation. See also Lillicrap<i>, Wassernaar &amp; Partners v Pilkington Bros (SA) (Pty) Ltd </i>1985 (1) SA 347 (A) at 496 I – 597 C.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> The claim for damages resulting from holding over is thus founded in breach of contract.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In this case the plaintiff alleged that it cancelled the lease agreement in May 2017 and the first defendant has failed to give vacant possession despite demand. Whether the lease agreement was terminated is yet to be decided. Despite that, at this stage the plaintiff is required to show how the claim for US$9 200 .00 holding over damages is quantified. The value must be a market value.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> That the first defendant is liable to pay rentals is beyond question. No tenant may occupy premises except in return for the payment of rent. In this case the rentals are in the form of holding over damages. Damages are a function of evidence, there must be evidence to prove the amount claimed. It is trite that a court nor anyone else cannot pluck a figure from the air.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The two witnesses who gave evidence for the plaintiff did not explain how the figure of US$9 200 was arrived at. The plaintiff’s submissions state that evidence was placed before the court that the computation was based on the rentals paid by a tenant occupying an almost similar space on the property is incorrect. A flirting reference was made to the other tenant in relation to the arrear rentals. No evidence was placed before the court showing how much the tenant is paying to prove the holding over damages. It is trite that evidence cannot be placed before the court by way of submissions. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The plaintiff produced the first defendant’s updated rental statement for the period March 2015 to September 2021.The period includes October 2020 the date from which the holding over damages are said to commence .The rentals are quoted as $7000.00 .In addition to that amount are the City  of Harare charges of ZW$ 2 794.66 and VAT of 1015.00 bringing the total due to US$ 8333.00.Even if the court were to accept that computation, it does not establish the claim for US$9 200.00 claimed by the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Even if the quantum is based on the expired lease or the rentals paid by the said legitimate tenant the amount is a result of agreement. It does not necessarily represent the market value of the property. In my view there was no evidence of the real market value of the property to confirm the figure of US$9 200.00 as holding over damages.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">From the foregoing, the plaintiff has failed to place before the court evidence upon which a finding might be made in its favour in respect of the rent arrears and holding over damages. The plaintiff has managed to establish a <i>prima case</i> in respect of the claim for eviction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:18.0pt; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Accordingly, the following order is made.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Application for absolution from the instance is dismissed in respect of the claim for eviction.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application for absolution from the instance is granted in respect of the claim for arrear rentals and holding over damages with costs.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The parties are directed to liaise with the Registrar Chinhoyi High Court for the continuation of the case.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:24px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Atherstone &amp; Cook, </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">plaintiff’s legal practitioners<i>.</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">S Nyahuma’s Law</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, first defendant, legal practitioners<i>.</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Thu, 05 May 2022 08:37:37 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12421 at http://zimlii.org Du Toit v Mushambi and Another (237 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 237 (13 April 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/237 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Du Toit v Mushambi and Another (237 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 237 (13 April 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2287" hreflang="x-default">Bar (PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1628" hreflang="en">Default Judgment</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1633" hreflang="en">Execution</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1657" hreflang="en">Stay of Execution</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2373" hreflang="x-default">Deceased estate</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2269" hreflang="x-default">Urgent Application</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2271" hreflang="x-default">what constitutes urgency (Urgent application)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2272" hreflang="x-default">when may be made (Urgent application)</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 04/26/2022 - 10:27</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/237/2022-zwhhc-237.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=23993">2022-zwhhc-237.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/237/2022-zwhhc-237.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=333836">2022-zwhhc-237.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="MsoNoSpacing text-align-right"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">1<sdtpr></sdtpr></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 237-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 2106/21</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">REF CASE  4742/21</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DANIEL FRANCOIS DU TOIT</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GEORGE MUSHAMBI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE SHERIFF OF THE HIGH COURT N.O</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TAGU J</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 1 &amp; 13 April 2022</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Urgent Chamber Application</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">O. Kondongwe</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for applicant</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">S.T. Mtema with J. Mugogo</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for respondent</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                     TAGU J: The Applicant approached this court on an urgent basis seeking an urgent temporary relief for stay of execution by interdicting the Second Respondent from proceeding with his ejectment from Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province on the strength of a writ of ejectment issued under case No. HC 4742/21 pending the return date whereupon Applicant will seek the suspension of the said writ of execution pending the final and definitive determination of an application for rescission of the default judgment which has been filed by the Applicant under HC 2086/22.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The facts are that on the 15<sup>th</sup> of September 2021, the first Respondent who is a holder of a SPECIAL POWER OF ATTORNEY issued by the Executor to the estate of the Late Christopher Francis Mushambi to act over the affairs of a certain farm being ODZI DRIFT ESTATE, flied summons against the Applicant in this Court at Harare under HC 4742/21 for the eviction of the Applicant from the said farm on the basis that the oral joint venture agreement that the Applicant had with the late Christopher Francis Mushambi expired upon the demise of Christopher Francis Mushambi on the 15<sup>th</sup> of November 2020. The summons for eviction was served on the Applicant at his premises by “affixing to a screen gate after hooting and knocking”.  Having been served with the summons as aforesaid the Applicant’s <i>dies induciae</i> of ten days within which to file a notice of appearance to defend expired.  First Respondent proceeded to obtain a default judgment on the 10<sup>th</sup> of November 2021 and a warrant of execution subsequently issued against Applicant’s property.   This issue then came to the Applicant’s light on the 25<sup>th</sup> of March 2022 when the Sheriff of Court attended at Applicant’s premises armed with a warrant of ejectment and carrying out the execution process. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Applicant proceeded to file a court application for rescission of the default judgment under HC 2086/22 on the 22<sup>nd</sup> of March 2022.  He proceeded to file the present urgent chamber application interdicting the second Respondent from proceeding with his execution from Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province on the strength of a writ of ejectment issued under case No. HC 4742/21 pending the return date.  The Applicant in his founding affidavit submitted that neither him, nor people residing at the said farm saw the summons hence he is not in willful default.  Further he submitted that had he seen the summons he would have filed a notice of opposition since he has a defence to the main action under HC 4742/21 and the application for rescission under HC 2086/22 that he had an oral joint venture agreement with the late Christopher Francis Mushambi on the farm known as Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province he entered into sometime in 2021 and was meant to subsist for five years.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The provisional order being sought by the Applicant is couched in the following terms-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">          “<b>TERMS OF FINAL ORDER SOUGHT</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">That you show cause to the Honourable Court why a final order should not be made in the following terms-</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The writ of ejectment sued out by the first Respondent pursuant to the court order granted in case number HC 4742/21 be and is hereby set aside.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first Respondent shall pay costs of suit for this application.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">INTERIM RELIEF GRANTED</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Pending the return date, the Applicant is granted the following relief-</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The writ of ejectment sued out by the first Respondent pursuant to the court order granted in case number HC 4742/21, be and is hereby suspended pending the outcome of HC 2086/22.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The second Respondent or any of his officers or agents be and are hereby ordered to forthwith desist with any and all execution process and not to eject the Applicant pursuant to the writ of ejectment sued out by the first Respondent under case number HC 2086/22.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">SERVICE OF PROVISIONAL ORDER</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">This provisional order shall be served on the Respondent by the Applicant’s legal practitioners or by a person in the employ of the Applicant’s legal practitioners or by the Deputy Sheriff.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first Respondent filed a Notice of opposition to the application.  In the Notice of Opposition the first Respondent raised some points <i>in limine</i>.  The first point <i>in limine</i> being that of lack of cause of action due to Statutory illegality, the second attacked the Form used as not being in compliance with Form 25, and the third being that the relief sought in paragraph 2 is final and definitive in nature and that the matter is not urgent, hence the application is fatally defective.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Counsel for the Applicant made oral opposition to the points <i>in limine</i>.  I will dispose of the points <i>in limine</i> first before dealing with the merits of the application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first Respondent’s argument was that the entire Chamber Application is premised on the fact that the Applicant seeks to argue on the main that he has a valid oral joint venture agreement which oral agreement is illegal by reason of statutory prohibition and cannot found a cause.  He said the Applicant is seeking to approach this Court on Urgent basis considering the fact that incidents being complained of do not warrant being placed in this forum on an urgent basis and he is clearly abusing of court process.  He said the Applicant is well aware that an oral joint venture agreement is unlawful in terms of the provisions of the Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations 2014 which specifically prohibit the entering into partnerships farm without the approval of the Minister.  He submitted that whatever oral agreement the Applicant had with the Late Dr.  Christopher Francis Mushambi was void.  The Applicant’s so –called oral agreement does not meet the requirements of Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations 2014 and is in direct breach of such regulations by its very nature.  That illegal oral agreement cannot create urgency let alone give the Applicant a bona fide defence in the rescission because it is an illegality.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The counsel for the Applicant submitted that all the preliminary points taken have nothing to do with urgency for an application of this nature.  He said the first Respondent is inviting the court to revisit merits on the substantive issues.  He said further that on validity or otherwise of oral joint venture agreement this is an issue to be examined as substantive issue and not as point <i>in limine</i>.  This court cannot make a finding on the validity of oral venture agreement.  This point must be argued on the merits of the matter.  The court must decide whether a prima facie case has been established.  The application for rescission cannot be determined on prima facie case.  He referred to the case of <i>Transfrontier Investments (Private) Limited</i> v <i>Bond Crown Investment</i> HH 671/21.  Commenting on the Regulations that have been referred to, he said they do not expressly preclude oral joint venture agreements.  He said the regulations say the Minister must consent in writing but this is not for this court to decide. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response the counsel for the first Respondent argued that the counsel for the Applicant has conceded that there should be approval by the Minister in writing, and once it has been found as a fact that there is illegality the provisional order cannot be granted, mainly because even in the application for rescission there are no prospects of success hence the first preliminary point should be upheld.  Reference was made to the case of <i>Hativagone &amp; Another</i> v <i>CAG Farms (Pvt) Ltd &amp; Others</i> SC 42/15.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Let me say on the outset that I am not dealing with the summons case HC 4742/21 nor the court application for rescission of default judgment HC 2086/21.  However, in determining the preliminary points raised by the first Respondent I am forced to refer to documents attached by the Applicant and the first Respondent.  It is trite that in general the court is always entitled to make reference to its own records and proceedings brought before it, and to take note of its contents, even in summary judgment proceedings.  Hence I will refer to all documents filed in the record brought before me as I had occasion to read the whole record before setting this matter down for hearing.   For this contention I refer to the case of <i>Mhungu</i> v <i>Mtindi</i> 1986 (2) ZLR 171 (SC). See also <i>The State</i> v <i>Munyaradzi Mawadze</i> HH-273/20 at page 7 of the cyclostyled judgment were the same authority was cited with approval by CHINAMHORA J.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first preliminary point raised by the first Respondent is that there is no cause of action in the Applicant’s application by virtue of illegality.  The first Respondent submitted that the entire Urgent Chamber Application is premised on the fact that the Applicant seeks to argue on the main that he has a valid oral joint venture agreement which oral agreement is illegal by reason of statutory prohibition and cannot found a cause.  He said the Applicant is well aware that an oral joint venture agreement is unlawful in terms of the provisions of the Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations 2014, in particular section 7 (1) (b) which specifically prohibit the entering into partnerships farms without the written approval of the Minister.   It is the first Respondent’s contention that that illegal oral agreement cannot create urgency let alone give the Applicant a bona fide defence in the rescission because it is an illegality.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I had occasion to read the Applicant’s founding affidavit.  In paragraph 10 the Applicant said he intended to defend the action under HC4742/21 as he was not in willful default. Further, in paragraph 11 he said in part-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Furthermore, I content that I have <i>bona fide</i> defence to the Respondent’s action (in HC 4742/21).  The defence arises from the following facts:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">11.1<b>. </b>I had an oral joint venture agreement between myself and Respondent’s late uncle, Dr. Christopher Francis Mushambi on the farm known as Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">11.2. The Joint venture was entered sometime in 2021 and was meant to subsist for five years. In terms of the joint venture, I had occupied the farm and brought a lot of furniture into the homestead to commence. As such, Respondent has no basis to evict me especially without affording adequate notice of vacation.”</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(my emphasis)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I again read the founding affidavit of the Applicant in respect of the application for rescission in order to establish if indeed the Applicant had a bona fide defence to HC 4742/21 that would entitle him to a stay of execution pending determination of HC 2086/21.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Applicant reiterated in paragraphs 10 and 10.1 that he a bona fide defence, and had an oral joint venture agreement between himself and Respondent’s late uncle, Dr. Christopher Francis Mushambi on the farm known as Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa of Manicaland Province respectively.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first Respondent is preliminary point is that the oral joint venture agreement was illegal and cannot found a cause. In determining whether the Applicant had a cause of action and whether he has prospects of success entitling him to the relief of a provisional order suspending the writ of execution, I had occasion to read the provisions of section 7(1) (b) of the Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations (S.I. No. 53 of 2014. The Regulations read as follows-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“A permit holder shall not –</span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">cede, assign, hypothecate or otherwise alienate or sublet in whole or in part his or her allocated land or enter into a partnership for the working of the allocated without the consent of the Minister.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> the Applicant does not deny that he entered into an oral joint venture agreement with the Late Dr. Christopher Francis Mushambi without the Minister’s written consent.  Clearly whatever agreement Applicant had with the late Christopher Francis Mushambi without the written consent or otherwise of the Minister was an illegality.  No cause of action can be founded on an illegality. I therefore uphold the first Respondent’s point <i>in limine</i>.  Having found as I did that the oral joint venture agreement was an illegality, I need not labour myself to deal with the other points <i>in limine</i> as these will not change anything.  The Applicant enjoys no prospects of success either in the main matter or the application for rescission of the default judgment.  The general principle governing non-compliance with statutory provisions was concisely spelt out by INNES CJ in <i>Schierhout</i> v <i>Minister of Justice</i> 1926 AD 99 at 109:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“It is a fundamental principle of our law that a thing done contrary to the direct prohibition of the law is void and of no force or effect…And the disregard of a peremptory provision in a statute is fatal to the validity of the proceedings affected.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">See also ZMDC and <i>Kamative Mine</i> v <i>Jambata</i> HH 681/21.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Another point to illustrate that the Applicant does not enjoy prospects of success in the main or rescission application is that the Applicant said the oral joint venture agreement was entered sometime in 2021 yet the Letters of Administration which the Applicant attached says Christopher Francis Mushambi died on the 15<sup>th</sup> of November 2020, I do not see how the Applicant will reconcile this contradiction since he never challenged it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The point <i>in limine</i> that there is no cause of action based on illegality is upheld.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant be and is hereby ordered to pay costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Dube Manikai &amp; Hwacha</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">John Mugogo Attorneys</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, first respondent’s legal practitioners.                      </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                </span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-3302d95e6026b13fead0429bf78c0eab6000b4203708b23f403e2874d4d03519"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="MsoNoSpacing text-align-right"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">1<sdtpr></sdtpr></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 237-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 2106/21</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">REF CASE  4742/21</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DANIEL FRANCOIS DU TOIT</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">GEORGE MUSHAMBI</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE SHERIFF OF THE HIGH COURT N.O</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TAGU J</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 1 &amp; 13 April 2022</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Urgent Chamber Application</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">O. Kondongwe</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for applicant</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">S.T. Mtema with J. Mugogo</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for respondent</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                     TAGU J: The Applicant approached this court on an urgent basis seeking an urgent temporary relief for stay of execution by interdicting the Second Respondent from proceeding with his ejectment from Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province on the strength of a writ of ejectment issued under case No. HC 4742/21 pending the return date whereupon Applicant will seek the suspension of the said writ of execution pending the final and definitive determination of an application for rescission of the default judgment which has been filed by the Applicant under HC 2086/22.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The facts are that on the 15<sup>th</sup> of September 2021, the first Respondent who is a holder of a SPECIAL POWER OF ATTORNEY issued by the Executor to the estate of the Late Christopher Francis Mushambi to act over the affairs of a certain farm being ODZI DRIFT ESTATE, flied summons against the Applicant in this Court at Harare under HC 4742/21 for the eviction of the Applicant from the said farm on the basis that the oral joint venture agreement that the Applicant had with the late Christopher Francis Mushambi expired upon the demise of Christopher Francis Mushambi on the 15<sup>th</sup> of November 2020. The summons for eviction was served on the Applicant at his premises by “affixing to a screen gate after hooting and knocking”.  Having been served with the summons as aforesaid the Applicant’s <i>dies induciae</i> of ten days within which to file a notice of appearance to defend expired.  First Respondent proceeded to obtain a default judgment on the 10<sup>th</sup> of November 2021 and a warrant of execution subsequently issued against Applicant’s property.   This issue then came to the Applicant’s light on the 25<sup>th</sup> of March 2022 when the Sheriff of Court attended at Applicant’s premises armed with a warrant of ejectment and carrying out the execution process. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Applicant proceeded to file a court application for rescission of the default judgment under HC 2086/22 on the 22<sup>nd</sup> of March 2022.  He proceeded to file the present urgent chamber application interdicting the second Respondent from proceeding with his execution from Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province on the strength of a writ of ejectment issued under case No. HC 4742/21 pending the return date.  The Applicant in his founding affidavit submitted that neither him, nor people residing at the said farm saw the summons hence he is not in willful default.  Further he submitted that had he seen the summons he would have filed a notice of opposition since he has a defence to the main action under HC 4742/21 and the application for rescission under HC 2086/22 that he had an oral joint venture agreement with the late Christopher Francis Mushambi on the farm known as Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province he entered into sometime in 2021 and was meant to subsist for five years.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The provisional order being sought by the Applicant is couched in the following terms-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">          “<b>TERMS OF FINAL ORDER SOUGHT</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">That you show cause to the Honourable Court why a final order should not be made in the following terms-</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The writ of ejectment sued out by the first Respondent pursuant to the court order granted in case number HC 4742/21 be and is hereby set aside.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first Respondent shall pay costs of suit for this application.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">INTERIM RELIEF GRANTED</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Pending the return date, the Applicant is granted the following relief-</span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The writ of ejectment sued out by the first Respondent pursuant to the court order granted in case number HC 4742/21, be and is hereby suspended pending the outcome of HC 2086/22.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The second Respondent or any of his officers or agents be and are hereby ordered to forthwith desist with any and all execution process and not to eject the Applicant pursuant to the writ of ejectment sued out by the first Respondent under case number HC 2086/22.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">SERVICE OF PROVISIONAL ORDER</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">This provisional order shall be served on the Respondent by the Applicant’s legal practitioners or by a person in the employ of the Applicant’s legal practitioners or by the Deputy Sheriff.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first Respondent filed a Notice of opposition to the application.  In the Notice of Opposition the first Respondent raised some points <i>in limine</i>.  The first point <i>in limine</i> being that of lack of cause of action due to Statutory illegality, the second attacked the Form used as not being in compliance with Form 25, and the third being that the relief sought in paragraph 2 is final and definitive in nature and that the matter is not urgent, hence the application is fatally defective.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Counsel for the Applicant made oral opposition to the points <i>in limine</i>.  I will dispose of the points <i>in limine</i> first before dealing with the merits of the application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first Respondent’s argument was that the entire Chamber Application is premised on the fact that the Applicant seeks to argue on the main that he has a valid oral joint venture agreement which oral agreement is illegal by reason of statutory prohibition and cannot found a cause.  He said the Applicant is seeking to approach this Court on Urgent basis considering the fact that incidents being complained of do not warrant being placed in this forum on an urgent basis and he is clearly abusing of court process.  He said the Applicant is well aware that an oral joint venture agreement is unlawful in terms of the provisions of the Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations 2014 which specifically prohibit the entering into partnerships farm without the approval of the Minister.  He submitted that whatever oral agreement the Applicant had with the Late Dr.  Christopher Francis Mushambi was void.  The Applicant’s so –called oral agreement does not meet the requirements of Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations 2014 and is in direct breach of such regulations by its very nature.  That illegal oral agreement cannot create urgency let alone give the Applicant a bona fide defence in the rescission because it is an illegality.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The counsel for the Applicant submitted that all the preliminary points taken have nothing to do with urgency for an application of this nature.  He said the first Respondent is inviting the court to revisit merits on the substantive issues.  He said further that on validity or otherwise of oral joint venture agreement this is an issue to be examined as substantive issue and not as point <i>in limine</i>.  This court cannot make a finding on the validity of oral venture agreement.  This point must be argued on the merits of the matter.  The court must decide whether a prima facie case has been established.  The application for rescission cannot be determined on prima facie case.  He referred to the case of <i>Transfrontier Investments (Private) Limited</i> v <i>Bond Crown Investment</i> HH 671/21.  Commenting on the Regulations that have been referred to, he said they do not expressly preclude oral joint venture agreements.  He said the regulations say the Minister must consent in writing but this is not for this court to decide. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In response the counsel for the first Respondent argued that the counsel for the Applicant has conceded that there should be approval by the Minister in writing, and once it has been found as a fact that there is illegality the provisional order cannot be granted, mainly because even in the application for rescission there are no prospects of success hence the first preliminary point should be upheld.  Reference was made to the case of <i>Hativagone &amp; Another</i> v <i>CAG Farms (Pvt) Ltd &amp; Others</i> SC 42/15.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Let me say on the outset that I am not dealing with the summons case HC 4742/21 nor the court application for rescission of default judgment HC 2086/21.  However, in determining the preliminary points raised by the first Respondent I am forced to refer to documents attached by the Applicant and the first Respondent.  It is trite that in general the court is always entitled to make reference to its own records and proceedings brought before it, and to take note of its contents, even in summary judgment proceedings.  Hence I will refer to all documents filed in the record brought before me as I had occasion to read the whole record before setting this matter down for hearing.   For this contention I refer to the case of <i>Mhungu</i> v <i>Mtindi</i> 1986 (2) ZLR 171 (SC). See also <i>The State</i> v <i>Munyaradzi Mawadze</i> HH-273/20 at page 7 of the cyclostyled judgment were the same authority was cited with approval by CHINAMHORA J.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first preliminary point raised by the first Respondent is that there is no cause of action in the Applicant’s application by virtue of illegality.  The first Respondent submitted that the entire Urgent Chamber Application is premised on the fact that the Applicant seeks to argue on the main that he has a valid oral joint venture agreement which oral agreement is illegal by reason of statutory prohibition and cannot found a cause.  He said the Applicant is well aware that an oral joint venture agreement is unlawful in terms of the provisions of the Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations 2014, in particular section 7 (1) (b) which specifically prohibit the entering into partnerships farms without the written approval of the Minister.   It is the first Respondent’s contention that that illegal oral agreement cannot create urgency let alone give the Applicant a bona fide defence in the rescission because it is an illegality.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I had occasion to read the Applicant’s founding affidavit.  In paragraph 10 the Applicant said he intended to defend the action under HC4742/21 as he was not in willful default. Further, in paragraph 11 he said in part-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Furthermore, I content that I have <i>bona fide</i> defence to the Respondent’s action (in HC 4742/21).  The defence arises from the following facts:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">11.1<b>. </b>I had an oral joint venture agreement between myself and Respondent’s late uncle, Dr. Christopher Francis Mushambi on the farm known as Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa District of Manicaland Province.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">11.2. The Joint venture was entered sometime in 2021 and was meant to subsist for five years. In terms of the joint venture, I had occupied the farm and brought a lot of furniture into the homestead to commence. As such, Respondent has no basis to evict me especially without affording adequate notice of vacation.”</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(my emphasis)</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I again read the founding affidavit of the Applicant in respect of the application for rescission in order to establish if indeed the Applicant had a bona fide defence to HC 4742/21 that would entitle him to a stay of execution pending determination of HC 2086/21.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Applicant reiterated in paragraphs 10 and 10.1 that he a bona fide defence, and had an oral joint venture agreement between himself and Respondent’s late uncle, Dr. Christopher Francis Mushambi on the farm known as Lot 1 of Odzi Drift Estate in Mutasa of Manicaland Province respectively.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first Respondent is preliminary point is that the oral joint venture agreement was illegal and cannot found a cause. In determining whether the Applicant had a cause of action and whether he has prospects of success entitling him to the relief of a provisional order suspending the writ of execution, I had occasion to read the provisions of section 7(1) (b) of the Agricultural Land Settlement (Permit Terms and Conditions) Regulations (S.I. No. 53 of 2014. The Regulations read as follows-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“A permit holder shall not –</span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">cede, assign, hypothecate or otherwise alienate or sublet in whole or in part his or her allocated land or enter into a partnership for the working of the allocated without the consent of the Minister.”</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In casu</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> the Applicant does not deny that he entered into an oral joint venture agreement with the Late Dr. Christopher Francis Mushambi without the Minister’s written consent.  Clearly whatever agreement Applicant had with the late Christopher Francis Mushambi without the written consent or otherwise of the Minister was an illegality.  No cause of action can be founded on an illegality. I therefore uphold the first Respondent’s point <i>in limine</i>.  Having found as I did that the oral joint venture agreement was an illegality, I need not labour myself to deal with the other points <i>in limine</i> as these will not change anything.  The Applicant enjoys no prospects of success either in the main matter or the application for rescission of the default judgment.  The general principle governing non-compliance with statutory provisions was concisely spelt out by INNES CJ in <i>Schierhout</i> v <i>Minister of Justice</i> 1926 AD 99 at 109:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“It is a fundamental principle of our law that a thing done contrary to the direct prohibition of the law is void and of no force or effect…And the disregard of a peremptory provision in a statute is fatal to the validity of the proceedings affected.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">See also ZMDC and <i>Kamative Mine</i> v <i>Jambata</i> HH 681/21.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            Another point to illustrate that the Applicant does not enjoy prospects of success in the main or rescission application is that the Applicant said the oral joint venture agreement was entered sometime in 2021 yet the Letters of Administration which the Applicant attached says Christopher Francis Mushambi died on the 15<sup>th</sup> of November 2020, I do not see how the Applicant will reconcile this contradiction since he never challenged it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The point <i>in limine</i> that there is no cause of action based on illegality is upheld.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The application is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Applicant be and is hereby ordered to pay costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> Dube Manikai &amp; Hwacha</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">John Mugogo Attorneys</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, first respondent’s legal practitioners.                      </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                </span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Tue, 26 Apr 2022 10:27:47 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12403 at http://zimlii.org Faith Ministries Church v Nhau and 2 Others (178 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 178 (18 March 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/178 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Faith Ministries Church v Nhau and 2 Others (178 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 178 (18 March 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2034" hreflang="en">Lease</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 03/21/2022 - 08:27</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/178/2022-zwhhc-178.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=24748">2022-zwhhc-178.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/178/2022-zwhhc-178.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=508801">2022-zwhhc-178.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                  </span></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 178-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 1261/21</span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                         </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FAITH MINISTRIES CHURCH.            </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MR. F NHAU</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">JOSEPH MSIKA HOUSING CO-OPERATIVE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE MINISTER OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT PUBLIC WORKS </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">AND NATIONAL HOUSING  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">KATIYO J </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 8 March and 18 March 2022 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Opposed application – eviction</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ms G Makina with Mr T.B Muvhami</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the plaintiff</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr. F Nyamayaro,</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">KATIYO J: The Applicant approached this court for an eviction order. The terms of the order sought are as follows:-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them be and are hereby ordered to vacate stand number no16549 Hatcliffe Harare within seven (7) days from the date of this order </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Should the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them fail to comply with paragraph 1 above, the Sheriff of High Court be and is hereby ordered to evict them forthwith and demolish any structures erected at no 16549 Hatcliffe Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1st Respondent be and is hereby ordered to pay costs of suit on a client-attorney scale.               </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Brief facts</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 25 April 2014 , Applicant made an application to the 3<sup>rd</sup>  Respondent for a site for church stand as per attached copy to the application labeled annexure B .Upon the acceptance of the application a lease agreement was entered into between the applicant and the 3rd Respondent on 15 April 2019 for stand number 16549 Hatcliffe Harare(see annexure C attached to the application).Sometime in 2020 the 1<sup>st</sup> Respondent through the 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondent took occupation of the same stand site and erected some structures without consent of the applicant. Effort to engage the two Respondents was in vain prompting the applicant to approach this court for relief. There was an application launched under case number HC 7668/20 which has since been withdrawn and is attached as annexure D. The 1st and 2nd Respondents (hereinafter referred to as the two (2) Respondents) have been barring the applicant from accessing the stand thereby preventing him from any meaningful development.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            The Respondent avers that he is in occupation by virtue of being a member of the second Respondent. The second Respondent is a Housing Co-operative known as Joseph Msika Housing Co-operative. The second Respondent, on 15 March 2012 made an application for state-land to 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent for use as residential stands .There was an acknowledgment of receipt of the said letter on 22 August 2012 and that due attention was being given to the letter. On 14 September 2017 there was another correspondence from 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent requesting the two (2) Respondents to submit a properly drawn diagram showing the existing development, also to regularize through a tarchy.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            The 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent did not file any papers in this case as its receptionist refused to accept service from the Sheriff of High Court insisting that it be directed to another address.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Points <i>in limine</i></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:18.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There were points <i>in limine</i> raised by the two Respondents </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That there is another matter pending on the same issue under case no HC 7469/20 and that there was no withdrawal of that matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That there are material disputes which cannot be resolved on paper but by way of action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That the applicant has no <i>locus standi </i>as he just a leasee and not the owner of the property in question.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-indent:18.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The three points <i>in limine </i>were dismissed after the court made a finding that the application in question was withdrawn and the second Respondent was not a party to it thus no need for notice to him. The second point has no merit for this is a clear application with no issues around but just to show by way of papers each party’s entitlement to the property in question. The third point on the basis that the applicant holds lease to the property thereby deriving substantial interest.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> <b>Submissions </b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant’s </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">legal counsel cited various authorities to deal with what the two Respondents raised in their opposing papers , in <b>Zimbabwe Teachers Association And Other<i>s</i> V Minister Of Education and Culture 1990(2) ZLR 48</b> it was held that a person must have an interest in the matter whether direct or indirect to institute proceedings.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is no doubt that in the current case the applicant has substantial interest as the lease holder to the disputed property. There is nothing put forward by the Respondents to meaningfully rebut this position.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue to do with material dispute of fact was well articulated in the case of <b>Supa Plant Investment (Pvt) LTD V Edgar Chidavaenzi HH 92-09 </b>where the learned judge <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Makarau</span> J defines when does a material dispute of fact arise:-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>A material dispute of fact arises when such material facts put by the applicant are disputed and transversed by the respondent in such a manner as to leave the court with no ready answer to the dispute between the parties in the absence of further evidence”.</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further held that <i>“For the respondents to allege that there was a material dispute of fact he must establish a real issue of fact which cannot be satisfactorily determined without the aid of oral evidence. He must not make a bare denial or allege a dispute.”</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This was well stated in the case of <b>Room Hires co v Jesper Street Mansion 1949 (3) SA.</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As again quoted in the heads of arguments by the applicant “<i>it is necessary to make a robust common approach to a dispute on motion as otherwise the effective functioning of the court can be harm strung and circumvented by the most simple blatant strategy. The court must not hesitate to decide on an issue of facts merely because it might be difficult to do so .Justice can be defeated or seriously impeded and delayed by an over fastidious approach to a dispute raised in an affidavit”. </i>See case of <b>Sofflantini v Mould 1956 (4) SA 150 at 154. </b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I tend to be persuaded by this argument in this case. I don’t see any material dispute of fact given that the applicant is a holder of a valid lease agreement. There is nothing to the contrary put by the two Respondents to that effect. There is a bold assertion to the effect that the lease agreement is potentially fraudulent and yet there is nothing to support such averment. The presumption that any document originating from public office shall be <i>prima facie </i>presumed to be the correct position unless proved to the contrary cannot be rebutted by mere bold allegation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the merits the applicant insist that he has the authority to institute these proceedings. The quoted learned authors <b>Silbergbeg and Schoeman in their book, The Law of Property, 5th Edition, Lexis Butterworths at page 653 had this to say:</b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> “Eviction proceedings may be instituted as soon as the owner or person in charge of property realizes that illegal occupation is taking place or as soon as it comes to his attention that persons are occupying his or her property”.</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The law is quite clear as to who can institute eviction proceedings. The two Respondents in their heads of arguments quoted more or less similar authorities as of those of the applicant. There is nothing to show that the two Respondents have right of occupation. A mere application cannot on its own be taken to transfer rights to an individual or individuals but an anticipation of a response either in the positive or negative. It is in other words a future uncertain response. The two Respondents have nothing in support of their opposition to this application. They have not demonstrated to this court any revocation of the <b>lease agreement </b>produced as annexure <b>C</b>. Courts are courts of record and not mere and bold allegations. The issue of regularization as per Annexures <b>A, B and C attached by the two Respondents </b>do not prove anything rather a process meant to acquire a stand. There is nowhere in the record which shows the Respondents were ever given any right of occupation by the 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent. This Court wonders why the two Respondents decided to oppose this application. They were simply supposed to pursue their application to the 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent to its logical conclusion than interfering with the applicant’s undisturbed peaceful possession of the said property. Furthermore there is no specific land which the two respondents can clearly demonstrate to this court as the land they were allocated. This is a clear case of self-help by the two respondents in total disregard of the law. In my view the applicant has clearly demonstrated that he is entitled to occupy the said property to the exclusion of any other party. The non-responsive stance taken by the 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent in this case is also a clear demonstration of his commitment to the lease agreement between Him and the applicant. In the result the court orders as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup>  and 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them be and are hereby ordered to vacate stand number no16549 Hatcliffe Harare within seven (7) days from the date of this order </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Should the 1<sup>st</sup>  and 2<sup>nd</sup>  Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them fail to comply with paragraph 1 above, the Sheriff of High Court be and is hereby ordered to evict them forthwith and demolish any structures erected at no 16549 Hatcliffe Harare.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup>  Respondent be and is hereby ordered to pay costs of suit on an ordinary scale.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mugiya &amp; Muvhami Law Chambers</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Farai Nyamayaro Law Chambers</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-133c23dc01126e9c8487549ad15b12c4f51252f4fcfb96cb74fd6418d1b079b0"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                  </span></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HH 178-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">HC 1261/21</span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                         </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">FAITH MINISTRIES CHURCH.            </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">versus</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MR. F NHAU</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">JOSEPH MSIKA HOUSING CO-OPERATIVE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">THE MINISTER OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT PUBLIC WORKS </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">AND NATIONAL HOUSING  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">KATIYO J </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HARARE, 8 March and 18 March 2022 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Opposed application – eviction</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ms G Makina with Mr T.B Muvhami</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the plaintiff</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mr. F Nyamayaro,</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> for the respondent</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">KATIYO J: The Applicant approached this court for an eviction order. The terms of the order sought are as follows:-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them be and are hereby ordered to vacate stand number no16549 Hatcliffe Harare within seven (7) days from the date of this order </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Should the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them fail to comply with paragraph 1 above, the Sheriff of High Court be and is hereby ordered to evict them forthwith and demolish any structures erected at no 16549 Hatcliffe Harare.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1st Respondent be and is hereby ordered to pay costs of suit on a client-attorney scale.               </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Brief facts</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On 25 April 2014 , Applicant made an application to the 3<sup>rd</sup>  Respondent for a site for church stand as per attached copy to the application labeled annexure B .Upon the acceptance of the application a lease agreement was entered into between the applicant and the 3rd Respondent on 15 April 2019 for stand number 16549 Hatcliffe Harare(see annexure C attached to the application).Sometime in 2020 the 1<sup>st</sup> Respondent through the 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondent took occupation of the same stand site and erected some structures without consent of the applicant. Effort to engage the two Respondents was in vain prompting the applicant to approach this court for relief. There was an application launched under case number HC 7668/20 which has since been withdrawn and is attached as annexure D. The 1st and 2nd Respondents (hereinafter referred to as the two (2) Respondents) have been barring the applicant from accessing the stand thereby preventing him from any meaningful development.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            The Respondent avers that he is in occupation by virtue of being a member of the second Respondent. The second Respondent is a Housing Co-operative known as Joseph Msika Housing Co-operative. The second Respondent, on 15 March 2012 made an application for state-land to 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent for use as residential stands .There was an acknowledgment of receipt of the said letter on 22 August 2012 and that due attention was being given to the letter. On 14 September 2017 there was another correspondence from 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent requesting the two (2) Respondents to submit a properly drawn diagram showing the existing development, also to regularize through a tarchy.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            The 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent did not file any papers in this case as its receptionist refused to accept service from the Sheriff of High Court insisting that it be directed to another address.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Points <i>in limine</i></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:18.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There were points <i>in limine</i> raised by the two Respondents </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That there is another matter pending on the same issue under case no HC 7469/20 and that there was no withdrawal of that matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That there are material disputes which cannot be resolved on paper but by way of action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That the applicant has no <i>locus standi </i>as he just a leasee and not the owner of the property in question.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-indent:18.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The three points <i>in limine </i>were dismissed after the court made a finding that the application in question was withdrawn and the second Respondent was not a party to it thus no need for notice to him. The second point has no merit for this is a clear application with no issues around but just to show by way of papers each party’s entitlement to the property in question. The third point on the basis that the applicant holds lease to the property thereby deriving substantial interest.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> <b>Submissions </b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The applicant’s </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">legal counsel cited various authorities to deal with what the two Respondents raised in their opposing papers , in <b>Zimbabwe Teachers Association And Other<i>s</i> V Minister Of Education and Culture 1990(2) ZLR 48</b> it was held that a person must have an interest in the matter whether direct or indirect to institute proceedings.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is no doubt that in the current case the applicant has substantial interest as the lease holder to the disputed property. There is nothing put forward by the Respondents to meaningfully rebut this position.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue to do with material dispute of fact was well articulated in the case of <b>Supa Plant Investment (Pvt) LTD V Edgar Chidavaenzi HH 92-09 </b>where the learned judge <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Makarau</span> J defines when does a material dispute of fact arise:-</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">“<i>A material dispute of fact arises when such material facts put by the applicant are disputed and transversed by the respondent in such a manner as to leave the court with no ready answer to the dispute between the parties in the absence of further evidence”.</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Further held that <i>“For the respondents to allege that there was a material dispute of fact he must establish a real issue of fact which cannot be satisfactorily determined without the aid of oral evidence. He must not make a bare denial or allege a dispute.”</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This was well stated in the case of <b>Room Hires co v Jesper Street Mansion 1949 (3) SA.</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As again quoted in the heads of arguments by the applicant “<i>it is necessary to make a robust common approach to a dispute on motion as otherwise the effective functioning of the court can be harm strung and circumvented by the most simple blatant strategy. The court must not hesitate to decide on an issue of facts merely because it might be difficult to do so .Justice can be defeated or seriously impeded and delayed by an over fastidious approach to a dispute raised in an affidavit”. </i>See case of <b>Sofflantini v Mould 1956 (4) SA 150 at 154. </b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">I tend to be persuaded by this argument in this case. I don’t see any material dispute of fact given that the applicant is a holder of a valid lease agreement. There is nothing to the contrary put by the two Respondents to that effect. There is a bold assertion to the effect that the lease agreement is potentially fraudulent and yet there is nothing to support such averment. The presumption that any document originating from public office shall be <i>prima facie </i>presumed to be the correct position unless proved to the contrary cannot be rebutted by mere bold allegation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On the merits the applicant insist that he has the authority to institute these proceedings. The quoted learned authors <b>Silbergbeg and Schoeman in their book, The Law of Property, 5th Edition, Lexis Butterworths at page 653 had this to say:</b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> “Eviction proceedings may be instituted as soon as the owner or person in charge of property realizes that illegal occupation is taking place or as soon as it comes to his attention that persons are occupying his or her property”.</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The law is quite clear as to who can institute eviction proceedings. The two Respondents in their heads of arguments quoted more or less similar authorities as of those of the applicant. There is nothing to show that the two Respondents have right of occupation. A mere application cannot on its own be taken to transfer rights to an individual or individuals but an anticipation of a response either in the positive or negative. It is in other words a future uncertain response. The two Respondents have nothing in support of their opposition to this application. They have not demonstrated to this court any revocation of the <b>lease agreement </b>produced as annexure <b>C</b>. Courts are courts of record and not mere and bold allegations. The issue of regularization as per Annexures <b>A, B and C attached by the two Respondents </b>do not prove anything rather a process meant to acquire a stand. There is nowhere in the record which shows the Respondents were ever given any right of occupation by the 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent. This Court wonders why the two Respondents decided to oppose this application. They were simply supposed to pursue their application to the 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent to its logical conclusion than interfering with the applicant’s undisturbed peaceful possession of the said property. Furthermore there is no specific land which the two respondents can clearly demonstrate to this court as the land they were allocated. This is a clear case of self-help by the two respondents in total disregard of the law. In my view the applicant has clearly demonstrated that he is entitled to occupy the said property to the exclusion of any other party. The non-responsive stance taken by the 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondent in this case is also a clear demonstration of his commitment to the lease agreement between Him and the applicant. In the result the court orders as follows;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup>  and 2<sup>nd</sup> Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them be and are hereby ordered to vacate stand number no16549 Hatcliffe Harare within seven (7) days from the date of this order </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Should the 1<sup>st</sup>  and 2<sup>nd</sup>  Respondents and all those claiming occupation through them fail to comply with paragraph 1 above, the Sheriff of High Court be and is hereby ordered to evict them forthwith and demolish any structures erected at no 16549 Hatcliffe Harare.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The 1<sup>st</sup>  Respondent be and is hereby ordered to pay costs of suit on an ordinary scale.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mugiya &amp; Muvhami Law Chambers</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, applicant’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Farai Nyamayaro Law Chambers</span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners </span></span></span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 21 Mar 2022 08:27:50 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12357 at http://zimlii.org Chinoingira v Sabre Services (Private) Limited and Another (22 of 2022) [2021] ZWSC 22 (18 November 2021); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/supreme-court-zimbabwe/2021/22-0 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Chinoingira v Sabre Services (Private) Limited and Another (22 of 2022) [2021] ZWSC 22 (18 November 2021);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2083" hreflang="x-default">APPEAL</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1644" hreflang="en">Interdict</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2137" hreflang="x-default">COMPANY</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 02/14/2022 - 09:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwsc/2021/22/2021-zwsc-22_0.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=22041">2021-zwsc-22.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwsc/2021/22/2021-zwsc-22_0.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=292663">2021-zwsc-22.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Judgment No: 22/22</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Case No: SC 329/21</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt 72.0pt 108.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DISTRIBUTABLE</span></span></span></u></b><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">  (19)      </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">EX-TEMPORE</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">EZEKIEL     CHINOINGIRA</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    SABRE     SERVICES     (PRIVATE)     LIMITED     (2)     BALWEARIE     HOLDINGS     (PRIVATE)     LIMITED</span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[Company     Number     45/77]</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUPREME COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BHUNU JA, CHIWESHE JA &amp; MWAYERA JA</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">18 NOVEMBER 2021</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the appellant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Magwaliba</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the second respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BHUNU JA:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1.         At the conclusion of submissions by counsel, the Court delivered a unanimous ex-tempore judgment. Counsel for the first respondent has now requested written reasons for the ex-tempore judgment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2.         It was couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            “We hereby present the unanimous decision of the court. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This is an appeal against the whole judgment of the High Court (the court <i>a quo), </i>in which<i> </i>it struck off the roll an urgent application seeking to interdict the respondent from evicting the appellant from a certain farm known as the Remainder of West Hay Sabona Bon without a court order.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)        The court <i>a quo</i> in striking the matter off the roll upheld the point in <i>limine</i> raised by the second respondent to the effect that the appellant sued a non-existent entity namely Balware Holdings (Pvt) Ltd as the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)        It is common cause that on 8 July 2020 the court <i>a quo</i> dissolved the first respondent as a company under case number HC 2860/20. The order is still extant. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)       It is trite that the order is binding on the parties and the world at large it being a judgment <i>in rem,</i> as submitted by Mr <i>Magwaliba</i>. We accordingly find that there is no merit in this appeal. Costs follow the result.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(e)        In the final analysis it is ordered that the appeal be and is hereby dismissed with costs.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHIWESHE JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                    I agree</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MWAYERA JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                    I agree</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">W.O.M. Simango &amp; Associates</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-4901b706552992b5b5d2c23f722d395501230bfb0540e0726f8a6c0ba310a2e2"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Judgment No: 22/22</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-ZW">Case No: SC 329/21</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt 72.0pt 108.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">DISTRIBUTABLE</span></span></span></u></b><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">  (19)      </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">EX-TEMPORE</span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">EZEKIEL     CHINOINGIRA</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">v</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">    SABRE     SERVICES     (PRIVATE)     LIMITED     (2)     BALWEARIE     HOLDINGS     (PRIVATE)     LIMITED</span></span></b></span></span></span></li> </ol><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">[Company     Number     45/77]</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">SUPREME COURT OF ZIMBABWE</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BHUNU JA, CHIWESHE JA &amp; MWAYERA JA</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">18 NOVEMBER 2021</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the appellant</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">T. Magwaliba</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, for the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">No appearance for the second respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">BHUNU JA:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">1.         At the conclusion of submissions by counsel, the Court delivered a unanimous ex-tempore judgment. Counsel for the first respondent has now requested written reasons for the ex-tempore judgment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">2.         It was couched as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">            “We hereby present the unanimous decision of the court. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:56px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This is an appeal against the whole judgment of the High Court (the court <i>a quo), </i>in which<i> </i>it struck off the roll an urgent application seeking to interdict the respondent from evicting the appellant from a certain farm known as the Remainder of West Hay Sabona Bon without a court order.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(b)        The court <i>a quo</i> in striking the matter off the roll upheld the point in <i>limine</i> raised by the second respondent to the effect that the appellant sued a non-existent entity namely Balware Holdings (Pvt) Ltd as the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(c)        It is common cause that on 8 July 2020 the court <i>a quo</i> dissolved the first respondent as a company under case number HC 2860/20. The order is still extant. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(d)       It is trite that the order is binding on the parties and the world at large it being a judgment <i>in rem,</i> as submitted by Mr <i>Magwaliba</i>. We accordingly find that there is no merit in this appeal. Costs follow the result.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">(e)        In the final analysis it is ordered that the appeal be and is hereby dismissed with costs.”</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHIWESHE JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                    I agree</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MWAYERA JA</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                    I agree</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">W.O.M. Simango &amp; Associates</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">, respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 14 Feb 2022 09:53:51 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 12301 at http://zimlii.org Mike v Maggio Centre (Pvt) Ltd (51 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 51 (27 January 2022); http://zimlii.org/zw/judgment/harare-high-court/2022/51 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Mike v Maggio Centre (Pvt) Ltd (51 of 2022) [2022] ZWHHC 51 (27 January 2022);</span> <div class="field field--name-field-flynote field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Flynote</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1585" hreflang="en">Locus Standi</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1660" hreflang="en">Summary Judgment</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2208" hreflang="x-default">claim for eviction (Summary judgment)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/1983" hreflang="en">Wages, pensions and benefits</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Sandra Muengwa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 02/02/2022 - 10:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/51/2022-zwhhc-51.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=30900">2022-zwhhc-51.docx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://media.zimlii.org/files/judgments/zwhhc/2022/51/2022-zwhhc-51.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=310000">2022-zwhhc-51.pdf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HH 51-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CIV ‘A’ 147/21</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ref Case 1246/20</span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ref App. 81/20</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHARLES MIKE<br /> versus</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAGGIO CENTRE (PVT) LTD</span></span></span><br />  </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE<br /> TSANGA J &amp; MAXWELL J<br /> HARARE, 27 JANUARY, 2022</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>Civil Appeal</b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i>T Nyakunika </i>with<i> S Chikotora, </i>for the appellant<br /><i>F Ndou, </i>for the respondent<i> </i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TSANGA J: On 18 November 2021, the appellant’s appeal against eviction from property known as Stand No. 11740A Harare Road, Mbare was dismissed. The judgment was given <i>ex tempo</i>. The appellant has appealed to the Supreme Court against the dismissal of his appeal and has requested the full reasons for dismissal in writing. These are they.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u>The background facts</u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent herein issued summons (as plaintiff) for the eviction of the appellant  (the defendant in the court below) from property known as Stand No. 11740A Harare Road, Mbare where he had been contracted to provide security services over the property. Sometime in November 2015, one of the directors of the respondent was said to have written to appellant advising him that his security services were no longer needed and that he would be paid in full at the end of that month. The appellant is said to have refused to move out and instead had started using the property for his own benefit without the mandate of the respondent. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Having reported the matter to the police to no avail, the respondent thereupon issued summons for the eviction of the appellant, who entered an appearance to defend. The appellant also requested further particulars in June 2020, namely, the certificate of incorporation and proof of ownership of the premises. The respondent as plaintiff applied for summary judgment on basis that the appellant as defendant, had no real defence to the eviction claim. The respondent included the requested documents in the application for summary judgment. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the hearing in the court below, the appellant had raised a point <i>in limine</i> that the application was improperly before the court because the applicant was a non-existent entity. He said he intended to file a special plea as the entity in question is known as Maggiocentre Pvt Ltd and not Maggio Centre (Pvt) Ltd and that therefore there was no proper application for summary judgment before the courts. He also stated that the failure to give particulars had resulted in failure to file his plea. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the application for summary judgement, the respondent had attached to its founding affidavit documents showing ownership and registration. The respondent had therefore maintained that the appellant had not filed a plea because it had nothing to say and had no defence to the application for summary judgment. He had also argued in the court below that the technicality on the name does not even exist as it was clear that the respondent is the owner of the property in question.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Magistrate found in favour of the respondent, herein arguing that the appellant had not even in the slightest way disclosed his defence to the claim. He had not denied occupation of the premises or the circumstances upon which he took occupation. Furthermore, the lower court found that the respondent had attached deed of transfer showing the owner as Maggiocentre and that the only difference in the name was the gap between Maggio and Centre. The argument on the name was therefore found to lack merit on the basis that the way the name is written did not render the court application defective. The lower court also highlighted that it was not clear how the furnishing of further particulars sought by the defendant (appellant), inhibited him from filing its defence. The court concluded that his opposition of the claim had been done solely for the purpose of delay.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The lower court granted the application for summary judgment and ordered that the appellant (as respondent to the summary judgment application) and all those claiming occupation through him vacate Stand No. 111740A, Salisbury Township, Mbare, Harare, within 5 days of the order. He was also ordered to pay costs on a legal practitioner and client scale.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u>The Grounds of appeal</u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant’s appeal to this court was on the following grounds: </span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court erred in granting summary judgement when the appellant had demonstrated that he had a <i>bona fide</i> defence permissible in terms of the rules of the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting relief in favour of a non-existing entity.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant had therefore sought that his appeal succeeds and that the judgment of the court <i>a quo</i> be set aside and substituted with an order dismissing the application for summary judgment. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u>The legal submissions on appeal. </u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant argued that the respondent had jumped the gun in declaring that he had no <i>bona<b> </b>fide<b> </b></i>defence as he wanted to file a special plea to the effect that there is no legal persona who goes by respondent’s name and that therefore the matter ought to be dismissed. In essence, his argument was that he had taken issue with the citation of plaintiff in the court below. Thus, he had not delved into the merits for the reason that he awaited the particulars that he had requested with a view to filing a special plea on <i>locus standi</i>. He argued that the special plea of <i>locus standi </i>is a <i>bona fide</i> defence.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent, on the other hand, argued that it had attached the CR 14 form as proof of incorporation and that the documents requested by the appellant had been supplied in the application for summary judgment. Furthermore, the respondent argued that if the appellant had intended to raise a special plea, then there was no need to ask for further particulars as he could simply have raised the special plea. Furthermore, the respondent argued that the appellant never produced any evidence to re-butt the evidence that the respondent is the owner. As such, the argument was that the appellant had no defence that warranted that the matter be referred to trial. The respondent also argued that the issue of the name had been dealt with adequately by the court below. He therefore sought that the appeal be dismissed with costs. </span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><b><u>Analysis and findings</u></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">The appellant argued that the court erred in granting summary judgement when the appellant had demonstrated that he had a <i>bona fide</i> defence permissible in terms of the rules of the court <i>a quo</i>. Granted the appellant had sought further particulars and in terms of Order 12 of the Magistrates Court (Civil) Rules, 2019. Order 14 of these same rules provides that where further particulars have been requested, an exception may be filed within seven days after delivery of such documents or information. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">However, what was before the lower court was an application for summary judgment. It was this that the magistrate was called upon to decide. In this regard Order 15 of the Magistrates Court rules provides as follows on summary judgment:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">Order 15 Summary Judgment</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><b><i>“</i></b><b><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">1. When application for summary judgment may be made </span></i></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(1) <b><u>Where a defendant has entered an appearance to defend</u></b>, the plaintiff, whether in the main claim or counterclaim, may by application supported by a founding affidavit apply to the court for summary judgment on any claim in the summons which is only— </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(a) on a liquid document; or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(b) for a liquidated amount in money; or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(c) for the delivery of specified movable property; or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(d) <b><u>for ejectment;</u></b> or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(e) for any two or more such matters as are described in paragraph (<i>a</i>),(<i>b</i>),(<i>c</i>) or(<i>d</i>); </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">in addition to costs. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(2) An application in terms of subrule (1) <b>shall be made at any time before the holding of a pre-trial conference,<u> upon seven days’ notice,</u></b> and the plaintiff shall deliver with such notice— </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(<i>a</i>) if the claim is illiquid, a copy of an affidavit, made by himself or herself or by any other person who can swear positively to the facts— </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(i) verifying the cause of action and the amount claimed, if any; and </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(ii) stating that in his or her belief there is not a <i>bona fide </i>defence to the action and that appearance has been entered solely for the purpose of delay; </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(<i>b</i>) if the claim is liquid, a copy of the liquid document on which the claim is founded, supported by an affidavit.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Of significance from the above is that summary judgment can be applied for once an appearance to defend has been entered, upon seven days’ notice to the other party and at any time before the pre-trial conference. It is the entrance of an appearance to defend which can trigger an application by the plaintiff for summary judgment where the plaintiff is of the view that the appearance to defend has no merit. The fact that no plea was filed is neither here nor there as what is important is that the claim must be clear and unanswerable. The argument by the appellant that he was awaiting further particulars in order to file a special plea was neither here nor there as that in itself was not a bar to an application for summary judgment by the respondent as plaintiff. The important point is that the appellant had no defence to the actual merits of the claim and as such the lower court did not err when it made this finding that there was no defence, even <i>prima facie, </i>proffered on the merits. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting relief in favour of a non-existing entity was adequately analysed by the court below in its reasons for judgment when it found that point lacking in merit because the only difference in the name was the gap between Maggio and Centre. As the lower court reasoned in dismissing the point <i>in limine</i>:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“However, I believe the argument raised has no merit. The gap left between the word Maggio &amp; Centre does not make him different entities. The same parties have appeared in court before on a different matter. According to an order attached by the Applicant the same parties appeared in court under case number 29839/18 where in the applicant got an order for an Interdict against the Respondent. I do not believe the way the name of the Applicant has been written on the summons renders the curt application defective. It cannot be said that the Applicant is non-existent simply because when the name was written, a gap was created between Maggio &amp; Centre when it is clear that in some processes it is written as a single word. Even with that gap being there, the name is still pronounced and sounds the same. The point <i>in limine</i> is hereby dismissed.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Indeed as stated in the case of <i>Masuku </i>v<i> Delta Beverages</i> HB 172/12, even where there has been an inaccuracy in the identification of a party cited, if a party is nevertheless pointed out with sufficient accuracy to enable it to be correctly identified, that process is valid. In that case,<i> Delta Beverages (Pvt) Ltd</i> had been cited as <i>Delta Beverages</i>. The court stated as follows:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB">“In other words <i>Delta Beverages</i> is known here and beyond. To me, applicant may have technically erred in her description, but, has described respondent with sufficient clarity to an extent of eliminating any mistake either legal or factual of respondent’s identity. Applicant sufficiently described respondent.”</span> </span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That court also relied on the case of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Van Vuuren Braun and Summers </i>1910 TPD 950 where <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Wessels</span> J at 955 stated;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">“Now in order to bring a defendant legally into court a summons is required. In order that summons may be valid it must comply with the requirements of r6. It must purport to be a summons, a mere request or letter to the effect that the defendant is kindly requesting to appear in court on a certain day is an invalid citation. Next the summons must specify the defendant. It is true that it will not be described as accurately as he should be. If a man is baptised ‘George Smith’ it is no defect to call him “John Smith” because the individual is pointed out with sufficient accuracy. But if there were no mention of the defendant at all the summons would be a wholly worthless document and could not be amended by inverting the defendant’s name in court.”</span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The magistrate in the lower court therefore did not err at all in finding that placing of a simple space in the plaintiff’s name, Maggiocentre was not an issue. It had no bearing on the application for summary judgment or even the intended special plea. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">We dismissed this appeal for the reasons that it lacked merit as there was no error on the part of the court below in granting summary judgment where there was no defence to the claim. Summary judgment was procedurally applied for and properly granted as the appellant lacked a defence. Our finding was equally that the appeal had been brought for the purposes of delay and accordingly dismissed it with costs.</span></span></span></p> <p class="Default"> </p> <p class="Default"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><b>MAXWELL J</b>…………………………………………………………………….AGREES</span></span></span></p> <p class="Default"> </p> <p class="Default"> </p> <p class="Default"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><i>Jarvis Palframan, </i>appellant’s legal practitioners<br /><i>Mabundu Ndhlovu Law Chambers, </i>respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-807dd0d8009c3c61d81010db961c0109bad1d701aebf8492bee998148cfbf4b6"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HH 51-22</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CIV ‘A’ 147/21</span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoHeader" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ref Case 1246/20</span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ref App. 81/20</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">CHARLES MIKE<br /> versus</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">MAGGIO CENTRE (PVT) LTD</span></span></span><br />  </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">HIGH COURT OF ZIMBABWE<br /> TSANGA J &amp; MAXWELL J<br /> HARARE, 27 JANUARY, 2022</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b>Civil Appeal</b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i>T Nyakunika </i>with<i> S Chikotora, </i>for the appellant<br /><i>F Ndou, </i>for the respondent<i> </i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">TSANGA J: On 18 November 2021, the appellant’s appeal against eviction from property known as Stand No. 11740A Harare Road, Mbare was dismissed. The judgment was given <i>ex tempo</i>. The appellant has appealed to the Supreme Court against the dismissal of his appeal and has requested the full reasons for dismissal in writing. These are they.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u>The background facts</u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent herein issued summons (as plaintiff) for the eviction of the appellant  (the defendant in the court below) from property known as Stand No. 11740A Harare Road, Mbare where he had been contracted to provide security services over the property. Sometime in November 2015, one of the directors of the respondent was said to have written to appellant advising him that his security services were no longer needed and that he would be paid in full at the end of that month. The appellant is said to have refused to move out and instead had started using the property for his own benefit without the mandate of the respondent. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Having reported the matter to the police to no avail, the respondent thereupon issued summons for the eviction of the appellant, who entered an appearance to defend. The appellant also requested further particulars in June 2020, namely, the certificate of incorporation and proof of ownership of the premises. The respondent as plaintiff applied for summary judgment on basis that the appellant as defendant, had no real defence to the eviction claim. The respondent included the requested documents in the application for summary judgment. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">At the hearing in the court below, the appellant had raised a point <i>in limine</i> that the application was improperly before the court because the applicant was a non-existent entity. He said he intended to file a special plea as the entity in question is known as Maggiocentre Pvt Ltd and not Maggio Centre (Pvt) Ltd and that therefore there was no proper application for summary judgment before the courts. He also stated that the failure to give particulars had resulted in failure to file his plea. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In the application for summary judgement, the respondent had attached to its founding affidavit documents showing ownership and registration. The respondent had therefore maintained that the appellant had not filed a plea because it had nothing to say and had no defence to the application for summary judgment. He had also argued in the court below that the technicality on the name does not even exist as it was clear that the respondent is the owner of the property in question.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The Magistrate found in favour of the respondent, herein arguing that the appellant had not even in the slightest way disclosed his defence to the claim. He had not denied occupation of the premises or the circumstances upon which he took occupation. Furthermore, the lower court found that the respondent had attached deed of transfer showing the owner as Maggiocentre and that the only difference in the name was the gap between Maggio and Centre. The argument on the name was therefore found to lack merit on the basis that the way the name is written did not render the court application defective. The lower court also highlighted that it was not clear how the furnishing of further particulars sought by the defendant (appellant), inhibited him from filing its defence. The court concluded that his opposition of the claim had been done solely for the purpose of delay.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The lower court granted the application for summary judgment and ordered that the appellant (as respondent to the summary judgment application) and all those claiming occupation through him vacate Stand No. 111740A, Salisbury Township, Mbare, Harare, within 5 days of the order. He was also ordered to pay costs on a legal practitioner and client scale.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u>The Grounds of appeal</u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant’s appeal to this court was on the following grounds: </span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court erred in granting summary judgement when the appellant had demonstrated that he had a <i>bona fide</i> defence permissible in terms of the rules of the court <i>a quo</i>.</span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting relief in favour of a non-existing entity.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant had therefore sought that his appeal succeeds and that the judgment of the court <i>a quo</i> be set aside and substituted with an order dismissing the application for summary judgment. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u>The legal submissions on appeal. </u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The appellant argued that the respondent had jumped the gun in declaring that he had no <i>bona<b> </b>fide<b> </b></i>defence as he wanted to file a special plea to the effect that there is no legal persona who goes by respondent’s name and that therefore the matter ought to be dismissed. In essence, his argument was that he had taken issue with the citation of plaintiff in the court below. Thus, he had not delved into the merits for the reason that he awaited the particulars that he had requested with a view to filing a special plea on <i>locus standi</i>. He argued that the special plea of <i>locus standi </i>is a <i>bona fide</i> defence.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The respondent, on the other hand, argued that it had attached the CR 14 form as proof of incorporation and that the documents requested by the appellant had been supplied in the application for summary judgment. Furthermore, the respondent argued that if the appellant had intended to raise a special plea, then there was no need to ask for further particulars as he could simply have raised the special plea. Furthermore, the respondent argued that the appellant never produced any evidence to re-butt the evidence that the respondent is the owner. As such, the argument was that the appellant had no defence that warranted that the matter be referred to trial. The respondent also argued that the issue of the name had been dealt with adequately by the court below. He therefore sought that the appeal be dismissed with costs. </span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><b><u>Analysis and findings</u></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">The appellant argued that the court erred in granting summary judgement when the appellant had demonstrated that he had a <i>bona fide</i> defence permissible in terms of the rules of the court <i>a quo</i>. Granted the appellant had sought further particulars and in terms of Order 12 of the Magistrates Court (Civil) Rules, 2019. Order 14 of these same rules provides that where further particulars have been requested, an exception may be filed within seven days after delivery of such documents or information. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">However, what was before the lower court was an application for summary judgment. It was this that the magistrate was called upon to decide. In this regard Order 15 of the Magistrates Court rules provides as follows on summary judgment:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">Order 15 Summary Judgment</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><b><i>“</i></b><b><i><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">1. When application for summary judgment may be made </span></i></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(1) <b><u>Where a defendant has entered an appearance to defend</u></b>, the plaintiff, whether in the main claim or counterclaim, may by application supported by a founding affidavit apply to the court for summary judgment on any claim in the summons which is only— </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(a) on a liquid document; or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(b) for a liquidated amount in money; or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(c) for the delivery of specified movable property; or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(d) <b><u>for ejectment;</u></b> or </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(e) for any two or more such matters as are described in paragraph (<i>a</i>),(<i>b</i>),(<i>c</i>) or(<i>d</i>); </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">in addition to costs. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(2) An application in terms of subrule (1) <b>shall be made at any time before the holding of a pre-trial conference,<u> upon seven days’ notice,</u></b> and the plaintiff shall deliver with such notice— </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(<i>a</i>) if the claim is illiquid, a copy of an affidavit, made by himself or herself or by any other person who can swear positively to the facts— </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(i) verifying the cause of action and the amount claimed, if any; and </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(ii) stating that in his or her belief there is not a <i>bona fide </i>defence to the action and that appearance has been entered solely for the purpose of delay; </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">(<i>b</i>) if the claim is liquid, a copy of the liquid document on which the claim is founded, supported by an affidavit.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Of significance from the above is that summary judgment can be applied for once an appearance to defend has been entered, upon seven days’ notice to the other party and at any time before the pre-trial conference. It is the entrance of an appearance to defend which can trigger an application by the plaintiff for summary judgment where the plaintiff is of the view that the appearance to defend has no merit. The fact that no plea was filed is neither here nor there as what is important is that the claim must be clear and unanswerable. The argument by the appellant that he was awaiting further particulars in order to file a special plea was neither here nor there as that in itself was not a bar to an application for summary judgment by the respondent as plaintiff. The important point is that the appellant had no defence to the actual merits of the claim and as such the lower court did not err when it made this finding that there was no defence, even <i>prima facie, </i>proffered on the merits. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The issue that the court <i>a quo</i> erred in granting relief in favour of a non-existing entity was adequately analysed by the court below in its reasons for judgment when it found that point lacking in merit because the only difference in the name was the gap between Maggio and Centre. As the lower court reasoned in dismissing the point <i>in limine</i>:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-ZW" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-ZW">“However, I believe the argument raised has no merit. The gap left between the word Maggio &amp; Centre does not make him different entities. The same parties have appeared in court before on a different matter. According to an order attached by the Applicant the same parties appeared in court under case number 29839/18 where in the applicant got an order for an Interdict against the Respondent. I do not believe the way the name of the Applicant has been written on the summons renders the curt application defective. It cannot be said that the Applicant is non-existent simply because when the name was written, a gap was created between Maggio &amp; Centre when it is clear that in some processes it is written as a single word. Even with that gap being there, the name is still pronounced and sounds the same. The point <i>in limine</i> is hereby dismissed.”</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:35.7pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Indeed as stated in the case of <i>Masuku </i>v<i> Delta Beverages</i> HB 172/12, even where there has been an inaccuracy in the identification of a party cited, if a party is nevertheless pointed out with sufficient accuracy to enable it to be correctly identified, that process is valid. In that case,<i> Delta Beverages (Pvt) Ltd</i> had been cited as <i>Delta Beverages</i>. The court stated as follows:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB">“In other words <i>Delta Beverages</i> is known here and beyond. To me, applicant may have technically erred in her description, but, has described respondent with sufficient clarity to an extent of eliminating any mistake either legal or factual of respondent’s identity. Applicant sufficiently described respondent.”</span> </span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">That court also relied on the case of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In <i>Van Vuuren Braun and Summers </i>1910 TPD 950 where <span style="font-variant:small-caps">Wessels</span> J at 955 stated;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">“Now in order to bring a defendant legally into court a summons is required. In order that summons may be valid it must comply with the requirements of r6. It must purport to be a summons, a mere request or letter to the effect that the defendant is kindly requesting to appear in court on a certain day is an invalid citation. Next the summons must specify the defendant. It is true that it will not be described as accurately as he should be. If a man is baptised ‘George Smith’ it is no defect to call him “John Smith” because the individual is pointed out with sufficient accuracy. But if there were no mention of the defendant at all the summons would be a wholly worthless document and could not be amended by inverting the defendant’s name in court.”</span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The magistrate in the lower court therefore did not err at all in finding that placing of a simple space in the plaintiff’s name, Maggiocentre was not an issue. It had no bearing on the application for summary judgment or even the intended special plea. </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">We dismissed this appeal for the reasons that it lacked merit as there was no error on the part of the court below in granting summary judgment where there was no defence to the claim. Summary judgment was procedurally applied for and properly granted as the appellant lacked a defence. Our finding was equally that the appeal had been brought for the purposes of delay and accordingly dismissed it with costs.</span></span></span></p> <p class="Default"> </p> <p class="Default"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><b>MAXWELL J</b>…………………………………………………………………….AGREES</span></span></span></p> <p class="Default"> </p> <p class="Default"> </p> <p class="Default"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black"><i>Jarvis Palframan, </i>appellant’s legal practitioners<br /><i>Mabundu Ndhlovu Law Chambers, </i>respondent’s legal practitioners</span></span></span></p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Wed, 02 Feb 2022 10:00:30 +0000 Sandra Muengwa 11546 at http://zimlii.org